Editorial Welcome


I am pleased to announce the publication of
the  second  issue  of  Applied  Research  in
English. The articles published in the current
issue  are  theoretical  as  well  as  research-based.  I  would  like  to  extend  my  most
profound  gratitude  to  all  the  authors  who
submitted  their  papers  to  our  journal.
Additionally, I could hardly deny myself the
pleasure  of  thanking  Dr.  Vahid  Parvaresh,
Dr.  Mohammadtaghi  Shahnazari  and  Mrs.
Nadia  Kazemi  for  all  their  invaluable  help
and  support.  I  am  also  very  grateful  to  the
International  Editorial  Board  members  and
also  to  the  anonymous  reviewers  who  have
contributed greatly with their comments.  
The articles comprising the journal’s second
issue  are  in  line  with  the  journal’s  broad
scope.  The  first  paper  by  Maryann
Overstreet  focuses  on  some  pragmatic
expressions  that  are  characteristic  of
informal  spoken  English,  their  possible
equivalents  in  some  other  languages,  and
their  use  by  EFL  learners  from  different
backgrounds.  These  expressions,  called
general  extenders  (e.g.  and  stuff,  or
something),  are  shown  to  be  different  from
discourse markers and to exhibit variation in
form,  function  and  distribution  across
varieties  of  English,  as  well  as  in  other
In “Towards a definition of intake in second
language  acquisition”,  Hayo  Reinders
claims that intake is a concept that has long
fascinated  second  language  researchers  as  it
provides  a  window  onto  the  crucial
intermediary  stage  between  input  and
acquisition.  He  argues  that  a  better
understanding of this intermediary stage can
help  us  to  distinguish  between  input  that  is
used  for  immediate  (e.g.  communicative)
purposes only and input that is drawn on for
learning.  The  article  traces  the  different
components  from  which  intake  can  occur,
reviews  existing  definitions  of  intake  and
suggests  alternatives  for  its
Vande Kopple’s essay,  “The importance of
studying  metadiscourse”,  focuses  on
metadiscourse, a name for elements of texts
that  convey  meanings  other  than  those  that
are  primarily  referential.    It  provides  some
theoretical  background  to  the  study  of
metadiscourse,  briefly  reviews  a  taxonomy
of  metadiscourse,  and  explores  four  reasons
why  the  study  of  metadiscourse  is
interesting  and  important:  (a)  Such  study
shows  how  intricately  structured  language
is;  (b)  Such  study  opens  up  intriguing
questions about ethics and language use; (c)
Such  study  reveals  differences  in  how
metadiscourse  is  used  in  similar  texts  in
different  languages;  (d)  And  such  study
provides  reasons  why  metadiscourse
deserves  a  special  place  in  second-language
Eli  Hinke’s  paper  is  based  on  the
assumption  that  being  aware  of  socio-cultural  frameworks  does  not  mean  that  as
an  outcome  of  instruction  learners  have  to
become  "native-like,"  but  an  awareness  of
L2  cultural  norms  can  allow  learners  to
make their own informed choices of how to
become  competent  and  astute  language
users.    The  author  provides  an  overview  of
practical  approaches  and  techniques  to
teaching  culture  in  the  classroom  in
conjunction  with  instruction  in  the  essential
language skills.   
In  the  fifth  study,  “Investigating  EFL
learners’  perception  of  narrative  task
difficulty”,  Saeedi  and  Rahimi  Kazerooni
investigate EFL learners’ perception of task
difficulty.  Drawing  upon  current  models  of
task  difficulty,  the  researchers  managed  to
operationally define four oral narrative tasks
of  varying  degrees  of  complexity.  Having
performed  the  tasks,  the  participants
attended a round of retrospective interviews.
The qualitative analysis brought to light five
major  themes.  To  explore  how  current
models  of  task  difficulty  would  explain  the
learners’ attitude toward task demands, these
categories  were  juxtaposed  with  Skehan’s
model and Robinson’s triadic componential
Pirnajmuddin and Zamani’s paper, “A study
of  the  translations  of  terms  related  to
practical  laws  of  religion  (furū  al-dīn):
Raising  students’  awareness  of  culture-bound  items”,  is  an  attempt  to  identify
appropriate  procedures  used  in  translating
culture-bound  terms.  The  study  reveals  that
literal  translation  is  not  only  the  most
frequently used procedure but also the most
appropriate one.
Finally, in “The effects of Curriculum-Based
Measurement  on  EFL  learners'
achievements  in  grammar  and  reading”,
Tavakoli  and  Atefi  Boroujeni  examine  the
effects  of  using  Curriculum-Based
Measurement  (CBM)  on  the  learners’
achievements  in  grammar  and  reading.  As
the  study  suggests,  CBM  significantly
improves EFL learners’ performance.
Many  thanks,  once  again,  to  this  issue’s
researchers  for  submitting  their  studies,  to
the  reviewers  for  contributing  with
constructive  feedback  and  to  the  readers  of
Applied  Research  in  English.  We  are  now
accepting  submissions  for  our  next  issue:
Volume II, issue I.
Best wishes,
Saeed Ketabi, PhD (Editor-in-Chief)