Editorial

Author


Welcome to the most recent issue of Applied
Research  on  English  Language  (formerly
known  as  Applied  Research  in  English).  In
the  past  few  months  since  we  published  the
first  issue  of  the  journal,  the  following
developments have taken place:
1)  We  have  been  declared  Elmi-Pazhuheshi  by  the  Iranian  Ministry
of  Science,  Research  and
Technology,  which  means  that  the
papers  we  have  published  up  to  this
point are all of scientific quality.  
2)  Dr.  Reza  Pishghadam  and  Dr.  Shiva
Keivanpanah have joined our team.
3)  We  have  been  indexed  in/by  such
famous databases as:
 
a)  IndexCopernicus
b)  Ulrich
c)  ResearchGate
d)  LINGUIST List
e)  TIRF
f)  Electronic Journals Library
g)  WorldCat
h)  ResearchBib
i)  NewJour  
The articles comprising the current issue are
again  both  theoretical  as  well  as  research-based.    The  first  paper  is  written  by  Robert
Kaplan,  who  argues  that  language  planning
is as old as human civilization. As explained
by  the  author,  every  time  that  one  polity
invaded  the  territory  of  another,  the
language  of  the  conqueror  was  imposed  on
the  conquered.  The  Romans  imposed  their
language  across  the  civilized  world  as  they
knew  it.  In  the  21st  century,  the  practice  of
language  planning  has  become  increasingly
sophisticated.  English,  as  the  result  of  a
series of fortuitous accidents has become the
international  language  serving  many
activities.  At  the  same  time,  Kaplan  argues,
it  has  led  to  an  explosion  in  English
language teaching, an activity also not based
on wise decisions or wise planning.  
The  second  paper  is  written  by  Clive  Scott,
who  outlines  founding  principles  and  a
guiding  strategy  for  the  translation  of
Apollinaire’s poetry; many aspects of the
strategy reflect the convictions and practices
of  Apollinaire’s  own  poetics.  Scott  is
particularly  concerned  to  argue  that
translation’s task is the projection of the
source  text  into  its  future,  rather  than  being
an  act  of  recuperation  or  preservation;  this
argument  is  pursued  and  evaluated  with
reference to the thinking of Yves Bonnefoy,
and  entails  the  differentiation  of  sense  and
meaning.  
In ‘Examining the difficulty pathways of
can-do  statements  from  a  localized  version
of the CEFR’, Judith Runnels focuses on the
Japanese  adaptation  of  the  Common
European  Framework  of  Reference  (CEFR-J),  which    is  designed  to  better  meet  the
needs  of  Japanese  learners  of  English.  Her
goal  is  to  provide  validity  evidence  in
support  of  the  inherent  difficulty  hierarchy
within  the  5  A  level  sub-categories  (A1.1,
A1.2, A1.3, A2.1 and A2.2) in two ways: 1)
by  testing  whether  the  difficulty  of  the  can-do  statements  for  each  skill  increases  with
the levels, and 2) by determining if there are
significant  differences  in  difficulty  ratings
between each level. For most skills, the rank
ordering  from  difficulty  ratings  made  by
Japanese  university  students  somewhat
matched  the  level  hierarchy  of  the  CEFR-J
but  significant  differences  between  many
adjacent levels were not found.  
In  the  next  study,  Khojasteh  and  Reinders
report  on  the  analysis  of  a  230,000  word
corpus  of  Malaysian  English  textbooks,  in
which  it  was  found  that  the  relative
frequency  of  the  modals  did  not  match  that
found  in  native  speaker  corpora  such  as  the
BNC.  They  compared  the  textbook  corpus
with  a  learner  corpus  of  Malaysian  form  4
learners  and  found  no  direct  relationship
between  frequency  of  presentation  of  target
forms  in  the  textbooks  and  their  use  by
students  in  their  writing.  The  authors
suggest  a  number  of  possible  reasons  for
these  findings  and  discuss  the  implications
for materials developers and teachers.
The  next  study  by  Pishghadam  and  Shams
focuses  on  the  validity  of  language  and
intelligence  factors  for  classifying  Iranian
English learners’ writing performance. The
results  revealed  that,  among  language
factors,  depth  of  vocabulary  (collocational
knowledge)  produces  the  best  discriminant
function.  In  general,  narrative  intelligence
was  found  to  be  the  most  reliable  predictor
for  membership  in  low  or  high  groups.  It
was  also  found  that,  among  the  five  sub-abilities  of  narrative  intelligence,
emplotment  carries  the  highest  classifying
value.  
As  discussed  by  Mohammad  Javad
Ahmadian  in  the  sixth  paper,  microgenetic
method  is  a  specific  method  for  studying
change  in  abilities,  knowledge,  and
understanding  during  short  time  spans,
through  dense  observations,  and  over  a
relatively  long  period  of  time.  The  paper
provides  a  brief  overview  of  microgenetic
method  and  will  point  out  its  potential
advantages and disadvantages in the context
of second language acquisition. To illustrate
the  utility  of  microgenetic  method  in  SLA
research, the author discusses a SLA-related
issue  which  could  be  addressed  via  this
research  method,  namely  the  effects  of
written  corrective  feedback  on  L2
acquisition.
And  finally,  Ines  khalsi  investigates  the
effect  of  language  complexity  and  group
size  on  knowledge  construction  in  two
online  debates.  The  results  show  that
knowledge  construction  and  group  size  are
significantly and negatively correlated. Also,
the  study  reveals  that  knowledge
construction  and  language  complexity  are
significantly  and  positively  correlated.
Furthermore,  the  study  demonstrates  that
language  complexity  is  a  significant
predictor  of  knowledge  construction  in
online debates.  
Many  thanks  to  the  researchers  who
submitted  their  papers  to  us  and  also  to  the
reviewers who contributed with constructive
feedback.  We  are  now  accepting
submissions  for  our  next  issue:  Volume  II,
issue II.  
Please  send  us  your  feedback!  We  would
love  to  hear  what  you  think  of  the  journal!
The  journal’s  email  address  is
jare@res.ui.ac.ir.
 
Best wishes,
Saeed Ketabi, PhD (Editor-in-Chief)