It  is  with  great  pleasure  to  welcome  our
readers  to  the  4
  volume  and  1
  issue  of
Applied  Research  on  English  Language.  I
would  like  to  take  this  opportunity  to  thank
not only our authors and readers but also the
anonymous  reviewers  whose  help  and
constructive  feedback  made  the  publication
of the current issue possible.
The current issue opens up with an article by
Abbas  Ali  Rezaee,  Shiva  Kaivanpanah  and
Sedigheh  Najibi.  The  authors  examine  the
relationship  between  EFL  learners’
motivational  beliefs  and  learning  strategies.
The  focus  of  the  study  is  on  the  three
components  of  motivation,  i.e.  expectancy
component,  value  component  and  affective
component.  The  study  shows  a  significant
effect  of  proficiency  level  on  test  anxiety
and  extrinsic  goal  orientation.  Furthermore,
the  study  reveals  that  self-efficacy,  control
of learning beliefs, intrinsic goal orientation,
and  task  value  can  account  for  70%  of  the
variation observed in self-regulated learning
Azizeh Chalak’s  study  examines  the  effects
of  task-based  instruction  on  reading
comprehension.  The  study  has  adopted  a
quasi-experimental  design  including  135
Iranian  female  students  who  were  divided
into four groups, two control groups and two
experimental  groups.  The  findings  of  this
study  suggest  that  using  flexible  and
interactive  tasks  in  English  classes  can
improve  vocabulary  and  reading
comprehension ability of EFL learners. This
study  has  pedagogical  implications  for  a
host of practitioners working in the field.
The  third  study  addresses  the  interface
between  L2  learners’  pragmatic
performance, language proficiency  and both
individual  and  group  zones  of  proximal
development  (ZPDs).  Analyzing  data
pertaining  to  20  EFL  learners,  Zia  Tajeddin
and  Farhad  Tayebipour  do  not  find  any
significant  relationship  between  the
proficiency  level  of  the  participants  and  the
amount  of  scaffolding  given  for  the
production of the speech acts of request and
apology.  Nevertheless,  the  findings  of  the
study point to the existence of a relationship
between  the  participants’  individual  ZPD
and their group ZPD. The authors also argue
that scaffolding has learner-specific effects.   
Mohammad  Amiryousefi’s  study  is
motivated by  the  fact that language learners
tend  to  constantly  complain  that  vocabulary
items  are  easily  forgotten.  The  author
believes  that  if  vocabulary  teaching  and
learning  are  planned  to  be  effective  and
enjoyable,  various  methods  and  strategies
should  be  employed.  In  this  respect,  the
author  recommends  the  use  of  multiple-mnemonic  method.  As  the  study  shows,  the
multiple-mnemonic  method  group
significantly  performed  better  than  the
control  group  in  terms  of  vocabulary
development and retention.  
The  next  study,  by  Nasser  Fallah  and
Habibollah  Mashhady,  sets  out  to  test  a
model  of  L2  communication  among  Iranian
EFL  learners.  Using  willingness  to
communicate  (WTC)  and  socio-educational
models  as  a  framework,  the  study  examines
WTC in English and its underlying variables
in  a  sample  of  Iranian  non-English-major
EFL learners. The results  of the study show
that international posture and motivation are
important  predictors  of  L2WTC.  The
findings  also  show  that  L2  communication
anxiety,  motivation,  personality  trait  of
agreeableness  and  teacher  immediacy  can
influence L2WTC.  
In the sixth study, Laleh Moghtadi, Mansour
Koosha  and  Ahmad  Reza  Lotfi  investigate

the differences between Persian monolingual
and  Azeri-Persian  bilingual  learners  of
English  when  learning  relative  clauses.  To
carry  out  the  study,  the  authors  selected  a
total  of  200  female  high  school  students
from two educational districts in Tabriz and
Shiraz.  After  administering  a  general
proficiency  test,  a  language  history
questionnaire  and  two  syntactic  structure
tasks,  the  authors  conclude  that
monolinguals  and  bilinguals  differ  in  the
comprehension  and  production  of  English
L3 relative clauses.
Many  thanks,  once  again,  to  this  issue’s
researchers  for  submitting  their  papers  and
to  the  reviewers  for  providing  us  with
immensely  constructive  feedback.  We  hope
you  will  find  the  present  issue  informative.
We  are  now  accepting  submissions  for  our
next  issue.  Please don’t forget  to  send  us
your  feedback!  The journal’s email address
is jare@res.ui.ac.ir.