A Comparative Study of Metadiscourse in English Research Article Abstracts in Hard Disciplines by L1 Chinese and L1 English Scholars

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 College of International Studies, Southwest University, Chongqing, China

2 School of Foreign Languages, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing, China

Abstract

This study investigates how L1 Chinese scholars in hard science disciplines use metadiscourse in their English academic writing, by comparing the deployment of metadiscoursal resources written by L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars. Hyland’s (2005) interpersonal model of metadiscourse was adopted for the analysis. We found that L1 Chinese scholars used less metadiscoursal resources than L1 English scholars on the whole. In the two dimensions of interaction, L1 Chinese scholars made more use of interactive devices, while L1 English scholars used more interactional items. This reflects that L1 Chinese scholars made greater efforts to guide the readers through their papers, and L1 English scholars are more concerned with creating author identity and engaging their readers. The t-tests confirmed that L1 Chinese scholars used significantly more code glosses in interactive metadiscourse and less self-mentions in interactional metadiscourse. An in-depth analysis reveals two functions of code glosses and five functions of self-mentions in RA abstracts.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Introduction

Metadiscourse refers to the linguistic resources that writers use to organize their texts and involve their readers, and in the meantime convey their position and attitudes towards their writing and audience (Hyland & Tse, 2004, p. 156). The choice of certain metadiscoursal items over others reflects “the writers’ evaluation of the readers’ need for elaboration and involvement” (Hyland, 2010, p. 141), and their efforts made to “facilitate communication, support the writers’ position, and build a relationship with the audience” (Hyland, 1998, p. 438). Therefore, the analysis of metadiscourse provides us with a valuable means of exploring academic writing, by comparing how scholars of different disciplinary communities, and of different linguistic and cultural communities, use metadiscoursal resources as rhetorical skills to present their research, make their cases, develop a relationship with their readers and manage writer visibility (Ädel, 2006, p. 4).

Studies reveal that the scholars in humanities and social sciences (the soft disciplines)[1] interact more with the readers than their counterparts in natural sciences and engineering (the hard sciences) as they employ more metadiscoursal resources on the whole (Hyland, 2010; Hyland & Tse, 2004). They make greater efforts to involve the reader in the text by using more hedges (Hyland, 2010), attitude markers (Hyland, 2010; Lafuente-Millán, 2012), self-mentions (Hyland, 2010), and stance nouns (Jiang & Hyland, 2015), which show that scholars in the soft disciplines favor more explicit personal interpretation than their counterparts in hard sciences. It is also reported that the scholars in the soft fields tend to elaborate by reformulation and favor argument by exemplification (Hyland, 2007). More recent studies found that even within soft disciplines, scholars use metadiscourse differently (Cao & Hu, 2014; Hu & Cao, 2015; Khedri & Ebrahimi, 2013; Kim & Lim, 2013; Li & Wharton, 2012), but disciplinary influence on the use of metadiscourse is not as strong as contextual factors (Li & Wharton, 2012), or paradigmatic factors (Cao & Hu, 2014; Hu & Cao, 2015).

Increased international contacts in the academic world, on the other hand, have aroused interests in how metadiscourse is deployed in different languages and how the scholars of these languages use it in English. Studies show that English academic writing is more reader-friendly, with more use of metadiscoursal resources on the whole to help readers understand their line of argumentation with transitions, endophorics, evidentials (Bloch & Chi, 1995; Kim & Lim, 2013; Lee & Casal, 2014; Ruan & Xu, 2016), evaluative strategies (Giannoni, 2005; Lafuente-Millán, 2012; Loi, Lim & Wharton, 2016; Mur-Dueñas, 2010), cause-effect metadiscourse signals (Moreno, 1997), premise-conclusion relationships (Moreno, 2004), and hedges (Hu & Cao, 2011; Ruan & Xu, 2016) than academic writing in languages such as Spanish, Italian, Chinese or Finnish. Similar results were reported in most comparative studies of English academic writing by non-native English speaking scholars and native English speaking scholars. Non-native English speaking scholars’ use of metadiscoural resources in their English academic writing reflects a preference for rhetorical strategies of indirectness (Mauranen, 1993a, 1993b; Valero-Garcés, 1996), which is less reader-friendly, by placing the responsibility to manage successful communication on the reader. For example, they tend to underuse frame markers or connector (Marandi, 2002), and rely excessively on a limited set of devices “which seems to be ... haphazard and monotonous” (Ventola, 1992, p. 209). In addition, non-native English speaking scholars don’t seem to know how to give a credible representation of themselves and their work through proper use of hedges, boosters, attitude markers, or self-referential pronouns (Abdollahzadeh, 2003; Sun & Tong, 2015; Vassileva, 2001; Wu, 2013; Yakhontova, 2002; Zhang, 2008; Zhang & Li, 2011). The only study that has different findings is Geng and Wharton’s (2016) investigation reporting no significant differences in the evaluation strategies used in the discussion sections in doctoral dissertations in applied linguistics, which indicates that the writer’s first language may not play a major role in metadiscourse choices at advanced levels.

The literature reviewed above points to research gaps that need to be addressed. First of all, not much research has been done to investigate how the use of metadiscourse may vary from within hard science disciplines, which is also worth studying as the classification of knowledge domains as hard or soft tend to leave out “the evident differences between and within their constituent subjects” (Becher & Trowler, 2001, p.39), and hard sciences have their own dominant “knowledge structures” (Bernstein, 1999, p.162) that feature in different “discursive practices for constructing and validating knowledge claims” (Hu & Cao, 2015,
p. 13). Furthermore, there has not been sufficient research focusing on how scholars whose native language is Chinese use metadiscourse in their English academic writing, the study of which would certainly contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of how the scholars’ linguistic backgrounds may influence their use of metadiscourse when they present in English their academic findings. Therefore, in the present study, we intend to investigate how native-Chinese speaking scholars in hard science disciplines use metadiscoursal resources in their English academic writing, by comparing the use of metadiscourse in hard sciences research article (RA) abstracts in English written by scholars whose native language is Chinese (L1 Chinese scholars) and published locally in P.R. China, with English RA abstracts by native-English speaking scholars (L1 English scholars) and published internationally. The main objective of this study is to achieve a comprehensive and thorough view of how L1 Chinese scholars in hard sciences use interactive and interactional metadiscoursal resources to interact with their readers in their academic writing.

 

Research Design

Corpus

For this study, we used two sets of comparable corpora. The first corpus comprised three sub-corpora of 60 English RA abstracts from biology (Bio), chemistry (Chem) and physics (Phy), published in prestigious academic journals in China, written by L1 Chinese scholars. It was compared against a second corpus of 60 English RA abstracts from the same three disciplines published in international prestigious academic journals, written by L1 English scholars. The selection of the academic journals was based on disciplinary expert nominations and compound influence factors provided by Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015) for Chinese academic journals, and impact factors provided by ISI Web of Science (2015) for their English counterparts. The RAs were selected from these academic journals, published between January, 2015 and March, 2016.

We took the following procedures to determine whether a paper is written by native speakers of English:

(1) locate the first paper in one issue by author or authors affiliated with institutions in countries where English is the most commonly spoken language, i.e., United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand (Crystal, 2010, pp. 108–109);

(2) write emails to the authors to confirm whether they are native speakers of English: in case there are more than two authors, write to the first two authors; in case the corresponding author is not among the first two authors, write to the first two authors and the first corresponding author, as corresponding authors can have great influence on the manuscript. A copy of the email can be found in Appendix A;

(3) if positive confirmation is obtained from the required number of authors, the abstract of the paper goes into English native speaker corpus; if not, procedures 1 and 2 are repeated until we receive the required number of positive confirmation from authors of 60 papers.

The abstracts in L1 Chinese corpus are all English abstracts for Chinese papers written by Chinese scholars from Chinese universities or research institutions, published in Chinese academic journals.

Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics for the corpora, and the details of the distribution of the corpora and the source RAs from which the abstracts were taken can be found in Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively. 

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for the Two Corpora

 

L1 Chinese corpus

 

L1 English corpus

 

Abstract

No. of words

M

 

Abstract

No. of words

M

Bio

20

4585

229.25

 

20

4216

210.80

Chem

20

4524

226.2

 

20

3652

182.60

Phy

20

4199

209.95

 

20

3126

156.30

Total

60

13308

221.80

 

60

10994

182.13

 

Analytical Framework

Hyland’s (2005) taxonomy of metadiscourse, which is “perhaps the most comprehensive and theoretically well-grounded model of metadiscourse” (Thompson, 2008, as cited in Jiang & Hyland, 2016, p. 3) was adopted as the analytic framework. Based on a functional approach which regards metadiscourse as ways that writers relate themselves to their material and audience, Hyland’s model comprises two dimensions of interaction: the interactive and the interactional. The interactive resources reflect the writers’ evaluation of the readers’ prior knowledge of the subject, their ability to comprehend, and their need for elaboration, and are used to “organize propositional information in ways that a projected target audience is likely to find coherent and convincing” (Hyland, 2005, p. 50); the interactional resources, on the other hand, help manage writer visibility and build writer-reader relationship by expressing doubt or certainty, as well as attitudes, towards propositions (Hyland, 2005, p. 52).

Table 2 presents the main types and subcategories of the interactive and interactional metadiscourse.

 

 

 

Table 2. Hyland’s Interpersonal Model of Metadiscourse

Category

Function

Examples

Interactive

Help to guide the reader through the text

Resources

Transitions

expressive relations between main clauses

in addition; but; thus; and

Frame markers

refer to discourse acts, sequences or stages

finally; to conclude; my purpose is

Endophoric markers

refer to information in other parts of the text

noted above; see Fig; in section 2

Evidentials

refer to information from other texts

according to X; Z states

Code glosses

elaborate propositional meanings

namely; e.g.; such as; in other words

Interactional

Involve the reader in the text

Resources

Hedges

withhold commitment and open dialogue

might; possible; perhaps; suggest

Boosters

emphasize certainty or close dialogue

in fact; definitely; it is clear that

Attitude markers

express writer’s attitude to proposition

unfortunately; I agree; surprisingly

Self-mentions

explicit reference to author(s)

I; we; my; me; our

Engagement markers

explicitly build relationship with reader

consider; note; you can see that

(Hyland, 2005, p. 49)

 

Procedures

We use the following procedures in the analysis of the RA abstracts:

(1) identifying and marking the interactive and interactional metadiscoursal markers in each abstract;

(2) recording each interactive and interactional metadiscoursal marker;

(3) counting the raw numbers of different types of interactive and interactional metadiscoursal marker, normalizing the occurrences to 1,000 words, and calculating the proportion of the metadiscoursal resources; and

(4) conducting descriptive analyses and independent t-test analyses.

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for procedures (3) and (4). A p-value≤0.05 was considered statistically significant for the independent t-tests.

Both authors independently coded 20% of the data (i.e., 24 RA abstracts; four abstracts from each of the six sub-corpora), and inter-coder agreement was assessed with Cohen’s kappa statistics for the ten types of metadiscoursal resources separately. The obtained kappa statistics were .95 for code glosses, .96 for endophoric markers, .98 for evidentials, .97 for frame markers, and .96 for transitions, .89 for attitude markers, .73 for boosters, .98 for self-mentions, .92 for engagement markers, and .82 for hedges. Based on guidelines proposed by Landis and Koch (1977), these kappa values indicated substantive agreement. As inter-coder reliability was acceptable, the first author coded all the remaining data after resolving disagreements between the two coders through discussion.

 

Findings and Discussion

Our analysis shows that on the whole, L1 Chinese scholars used less metadiscoursal resources than L1 English scholars, with 37.21 cases per thousand words in L1 Chinese corpus and 47.58 cases per thousand words in L1 English corpus (Table 3). As for the two dimensions of interaction, L1 Chinese scholars made more use of interactive devices, while L1 English scholars used more interactional ones. This reflects that L1 Chinese scholars made greater efforts to guide the readers through their papers by explaining, elaborating and organizing their writing, while L1 English scholars are more concerned with creating author identity and engaging their readers by expressing their judgment towards their materials and speaking to their readers.

Table 3. Interactive and Interactional Metadiscourse

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

Interactive

22.70

61.01

 

20.21

48.78

Code glosses

16.68

44.83

 

10.82

22.74

Endophoric markers

0.08

0.21

 

0.00

6.31

Evidentials

0.38

1.02

 

0.63

1.32

Frame markers

2.93

7.87

 

3.91

8.22

Transitions

2.63

7.07

 

4.85

10.19

Interactional

14.51

38.99

 

27.37

57.52

Attitude markers

0.83

2.23

 

1.91

4.01

Boosters

5.49

14.75

 

8.28

17.40

Self-mentions

4.51

12.12

 

13.73

28.86

Engagement markers

0.00

0.00

 

0.18

0.38

Hedges

3.68

9.89

 

3.27

6.87

Totals

37.21

100.00

 

47.58

100.00

 

Interactive Metadiscourse

T-tests were performed to determine whether the use of the five types of interactive metadiscoursal resources was significantly different between the two corpora. As shown in Table 4, L1 Chinese scholars (M=3.68, SD=5.43) used more code glosses than L1 English scholars (M=1.98, SD=2.39), and this difference was confirmed to be statistically significant by the t-test: t(118)=2.22, p=.03. The magnitude of the differences in the means was small (eta squared=0.04)[2].

Table 4. Mean Scores and T-test Results for Interactive Metadiscourse

Category

Type

N

Mean

SD

t

df

Sig

Code glosses

L1 Chinese

60

3.68

5.43

2.22

118

.03

L1 English

60

1.98

2.39

 

118

 

Endophoric markers

L1 Chinese

60

.02

.13

1.00

118

.32

L1 English

60

.00

.00

 

118

 

Evidentials

L1 Chinese

60

.08

.28

-.46

118

.64

L1 English

60

.12

.50

 

118

 

Frame markers

L1 Chinese

60

.65

.76

-.56

118

.57

L1 English

60

.72

.52

 

118

 

Transitions

L1 Chinese

60

.58

1.27

-1.44

118

.15

L1 English

60

.88

1.01

 

118

 

 

Code glosses provide “additional information by rephrasing, explaining or elaborating what has been said” (Hyland, 2005, p. 52), to help readers “grasp the appropriate meaning of elements in texts” (Vande Kopple, 2012, p. 39). A further analysis of the abstracts demonstrates that code glosses used in the two corpora mainly serve two functions: reformulation and exemplification, which are the important features of academic writing, and are more common in academic discourse as compared to other genres (Biber et al., 1999; Hyland, 2007). As can be seen in Table 5, both L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars used significantly more reformulation markers than exemplification markers.

Table 5. Code Gloss Markers

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

Reformulation

16.08

96.43

 

8.71

89.98

Exemplification

.60

3.57

 

1.00

10.02

Totals

16.68

100

 

9.71

100

 

This finding is in line with Hyland (2007), who found that two-thirds of the code glosses in the hard sciences signaling reformulations, while two-thirds of those in the soft fields indicating exemplifications. This difference was explained by the different ways that hard and soft disciplines mediate reality: hard sciences tend to be cumulative and tightly structured, while soft disciplines use examples to engage and involve readers (Hyland, 2007, p. 272).

Reformulation occurs when a writer explains and elaborates an idea in a different way to facilitate comprehension. The complete list of reformulation markers found in the two corpora (Table 6) shows that parentheses occur overwhelmingly more often than other forms of reformulation markers: 96.70% of the reformulation markers in L1 Chinese scholar corpus and 92.54% of the reformulation markers in L1 English scholar corpus are parentheses.

Table 6. Reformulation Markers

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

parenthesis

15.55

96.70

 

8.06

92.54

known as

0.00

0.00

 

0.30

3.44

i.e.

0.11

0.68

 

0.06

0.69

means

0.18

1.12

 

0.00

0.00

which is

0.06

0.37

 

0.14

1.61

or

0.13

0.81

 

0.00

0.00

in fact

0.05

0.31

 

0.00

0.00

understood as

0.00

0.00

 

0.05

0.57

appositive

0.00

0.00

 

0.05

0.57

specifically

0.00

0.00

 

0.05

0.57

Totals

16.08

100

 

8.71

100

 

Parentheses serve to place certain information in a separated area from the main sentence, “allowing writers to signal that the enclosure provides background or illustrative information rather than main ideas” (Hyland, 2007, p. 273). The analysis reveals that parentheses mainly perform three types of function as reformulation markers in the two corpora: introducing acronyms or abbreviations for academic/technical terms, providing clarification for academic/technical terms, and presenting statistical values. The majority of the parentheses are used for giving acronyms or abbreviations for academic/technical terms upon their first use, and then used in place of the full term in the remainder of the abstract:

(1) AKT-interacting protein (AKTIP) is a kind of membrane protein, involving in the regulation of P13K/PDK1/Akt pathway. (C. Bio)[3]

Batch experiments and XAD resin were used to investigate dissolved organic matter (DOM) adsorption by ferrallitic soils. (C. Chem)

A tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) medium is a good approximation for anisotropic problems. (C. Phy)

A series of photoβ2s capable of performing photoinitiated substrate turnover have been prepared in which four different fluorotyrosines (FnYs) are incorporated in place of β-Y356. (E. Phy)

Another function is to provide clarification which elaborates the meaning of a preceding concept to make it more accessible to the reader:

(2) ...under the function of 1-ethy1-3 (3-dimethylaimin-opropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, followed by a hydration process. (C. Chem)

An amphiphilic molecule (N-tetradecanoic glycylglycine, 1) was first synthesized by the coupling reaction of .... (C. Chem)

Here we show that two closely related bis-rhodium hexaphyrins (R26H and R28H) containing [26] and [28] π-electron peripheries, respectively, exhibit properties consistent with Baird's rule. (E. Phy)

Phylogenies and dating analyses were reconstructed with molecular data from seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) for 117 species (plus 12 outgroups). (E. Bio)

The third function of the parentheses found in the two corpora is to present statistical values:

(3) Among all the trait-related markers, TC1A02 (P<0.001) had the highest rate of phenotypic explanation and contained 21 alleles, which was associated with the trait of pod number per plant. (C. Bio)

In our studies, it was found that tritylium salts (10 mol%) in situ generated by Ph3CBr (0.02mmol) and NaBArF (0.02 mmol) could promote the three components.... (C. Chem)

For example, it was found that the cyclometalated iridium catalyst modified by BINAP and m-nitro-p-cyano-benzoic acid delivered adduct 1 with the highest levels of enantiomeric enrichment (94%), whereas the corresponding SEGPHOS-modified catalyst gave a comparable yield but lower ee (91%). (E. Chem)

L1 Chinese scholars used more parentheses for acronyms/abbreviations (7.96 per 1,000 words vs. 4.48 per 1,000 words) and statistics (5.41 per 1,000 words vs. .47 per 1,000 words), but less for elaboration (2.18 per 1,000 words vs. 3.11 per 1,000 words), than L1 English scholars, as shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Use of Parentheses

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

acronym/abbr.

7.96

51.21

 

4.48

55.68

elaboration

2.18

14.01

 

3.11

38.64

statistics

5.41

34.78

 

.47

5.68

Totals

15.55

100

 

8.06

100

 

Another form of code glosses is exemplification, with which the author clarifies what is written with examples. Exemplification reflects the writer’s anticipation of the readers and helps their processing of the text by presenting data or experience to make the abstract more concrete. However, in hard sciences, the use of exemplification are not common (Cao & Hu, 2014; Hyland, 2007; Rahimpour, 2013), as “scientific knowledge tends to be cumulative and tightly structured”, and soft disciplines use examples to index a known and recoverable reality to “encourage the readers to recognize phenomena through recoverable experiences and to become involved in the unfolding text” (Hyland, 2007, p. 272). Examples in the corpus were signaled in a limited number of ways, by just three markers: such as, parenthesis, and for example. Table 8 shows the details for the distribution of exemplification markers.

On the whole, L1 Chinese scholars used less exemplification markers than L1 English scholars (.60 per 1,000 words vs. 1.00 per 1,000 words), as they used less such as (.45 per 1,000 words vs. .64 per 1,000 words), parenthesis (.15 per 1,000 words vs. .27 per 1,000 words), or for example (0 per 1,000 words vs. .09 per 1,000 words).

Table 8. Exemplification Markers

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

such as

.45

75

 

.64

64

parenthesis

.15

25

 

.27

27

for example

0

0

 

.09

9

Totals

.60

100

 

1.00

100

 

Interactional Metadiscourse

T-tests were run to determine whether the use of the five types of interactional metadiscourse was significantly different between the two corpora. As shown in Table 9, L1 Chinese scholars (M=.98, SD=1.38) used less self-mentions than L1 English scholars (M=2.52, SD=1.69), and this difference was confirmed to be statistically significant by the t-test: t(118)=-5.43, p=.00. The magnitude of the differences in the means was large (eta squared=.20).

Table 9. Mean Scores and T-test Results for Interactional Metadiscourse

Category

Type

N

Mean

SD

t

df

Sig

Attitude markers

L1 Chinese

60

.18

.47

-1.37

118

.17

L1 English

60

.35

.82

 

 

 

Boosters

L1 Chinese

60

1.22

1.11

-1.41

118

.16

L1 English

60

1.52

1.22

 

 

 

Self-mentions

L1 Chinese

60

.98

1.38

-5.43

118

.00

L1 English

60

2.52

1.69

 

 

 

Engagement markers

L1 Chinese

60

.00

.00

-1.43

118

.16

L1 English

60

.03

.18

 

 

 

Hedges

L1 Chinese

60

.82

1.19

1.16

118

.25

L1 English

60

.60

.83

 

 

 

 

Self-mention manifests the explicitness of author presence by the use of first-person pronouns and possessive adjectives such as I, my, me, mine, exclusive we, us, our and ours (Hyland, 2005, p. 53). In both L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars’ RA abstracts, self-mentions were only in the form of exclusive we, us and our, which could be partly explained by patterns of authorship: all the RAs were multiple-authored. However, it cannot be assumed that the opposite would be true, i.e., first person singular pronouns would be used in single-authored papers. As pointed out by Hyland (2001), writers of single-authored articles often decide to use we out of the intention to reduce personal attribution (p. 217).

Chinese authors used significantly less self-mentions probably because of the long-time held concept that academic papers should be “objective reporting of an independent and external reality” (Hyland, 2001, p. 207), and that any explicit author presence would undermine this objectivity. In Chinese academic circle, this convention of impersonal reporting is proposed in textbooks and lectures (Ren, 2016; Wu, 2013; Yan & Luo, 2015; Zhang, 2011). Not only did scholars claim that first-person pronouns such as I and we should be avoided in academic papers (Li, 1989; Liu, 2005; Zheng, 2003), some prestigious academic journals (e.g., Chinese Critical Care Medicine) and official organizations such as General Administration of Press and Publication of the People’s Republic of China[4] specifically made it clear that first-person pronouns in academic papers should not be used (Chinese Critical Care Medicine, 2005; Zhang, 2008) or be used as less as possible (Wen, 2005). Another possible explanation for Chinese scholars’ shunning the use of self-mention is face saving strategy. By avoiding using self-reference, they avoided speaking directly to their readers and made their writing appear objective and impersonal so as to avoid criticism or refutation from the audience, thus saving the authors’ face.

Table 10 shows the details of distribution of self-mentions in the two corpora. L1 Chinese scholars used less we (3.30 per 1,000 words vs. 10.89 per 1,000 words), us (.08 per 1,000 words vs. .18 per 1,000 words), and our (1.05 per 1,000 words vs. 1.92 per 1,000 words) than L1 English scholars.

Table 10. Use of Self-mentions

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

we

3.30

75.00

 

10.89

83.80

us

.08

1.67

 

.18

1.41

our

1.05

23.33

 

1.92

14.79

Totals

4.51

100

 

12.99

100

 

The t-tests (Table 11) confirmed that Chinese scholars (M=.77, SD=1.14) used significantly less we as self-mention markers than L1 English scholars (M=2.02, SD=1.27);
t (118) =-5.68, p = .00; and the magnitude of the differences in the means was large
(eta squared = .21).

Table 11. Mean Scores and T-test Results for the Use of we, us, and our

Category

Type

N

Mean

SD

t

df

Sig

we

L1 Chinese

60

.77

1.14

-5.68

118

.00

L1 English

60

2.02

1.27

 

 

 

us

L1 Chinese

60

.00

.00

-1.35

118

.18

L1 English

60

.05

.29

 

 

 

our

L1 Chinese

60

.22

.492

-.93

118

.36

L1 English

60

.32

.68

 

 

 

 

The analysis shows that self-mentions in the two corpora mainly perform five types of function: providing research background, stating research purpose, describing methodology, reporting findings, and interpreting findings.

Self-mention establishes the scholar as the “Opinion-Holder” and “Originator’’ of new ideas (Tang & John, 1999, p. 28–29) through identifying research questions and commenting on the relevant literature.

(4) The ubiquitin-like molecule ATG12 is required for the early steps of autophagy. Recently, we identified ATG3, the E2-like enzyme required for LC3 lipidation during autophagy, as an ATG12 conjugation target. Here, we demonstrate that cells lacking ATG12–ATG3 have impaired basal autophagic flux, accumulation of perinuclear late endosomes, and impaired endolysosomal trafficking. (E. Bio)

A second function of self-mention is to state the research purpose, summarize the goals of the research, and give the readers a picture of what the research will cover and what they can gain from reading it:

(5) Here we examine how geometric frustration in itinerant antiferromagnetic compounds can enhance the barocaloric effect. (E. Chem)

Using self-mention markers to provide research background and state the research purpose is an effective self-promotional device “to underscore the novelty of the work in question by stressing that there are gaps in the literature which need plugging” (Harwood, 2005, p. 1217).

Self-mentions also help the writer to describe the research process, which is not just a straightforward reporting of procedures, but also a means to highlight their own contributions to the study. By recounting the rationale for using certain procedures or techniques to identify the research question and analyze relevant information, writers are “advertising their worth as researchers” (Harwood, 2005, p. 1213):

(6) We compare forward features of 3 second-order difference equations of pseudo P waves based on Hooke’s law, elastic wave projection and dispersion equation, respectively. (C. Phy)

Self-mentions are used very often for reporting findings without bias or interpretation, to underscore the groundbreaking aspects of one’s research work:

(7) We found that the PST population across the United Kingdom (UK) underwent a major shift in recent years. (E. Bio)

Finally, self-mentions can also be used to explain the significance of research findings:

(8) Our approach offers diffraction-limited resolution, potentially at arbitrarily-low intensity levels and with 100 THz bandwidth, thus promising new applications in space-division multiplexing, adaptive optics, image correction, processing and recognition, 2D binary optical data processing and reconfigurable optical devices. (E. Phy)

Table 12 provides details for the distribution of the functions performed by self-mentions in the two corpora. It is quite obvious that L1 Chinese scholars are less likely to use first person pronouns to describe methodology, report findings or interpreting their findings, probably because they want to remain impersonal and make their research to appear more objective.

Table 12. Functions of Self-mentions

Category

L1 Chinese

 

L1 English

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

 

Item per 1,000 words

% of total

Providing research background

0.23

5.00

 

0.09

0.70

Stating research purpose

0.30

6.67

 

0.18

1.41

Describing methodology

1.58

35.00

 

4.85

37.32

Reporting findings

2.33

51.67

 

7.23

55.63

Interpreting findings

0.08

1.67

 

0.64

4.93

Totals

4.51

100

 

12.99

100

             

 

The t-tests confirmed that L1 Chinese scholars used significantly less self-mentions for describing methodology, reporting findings, or evaluating one’s research (Table 13): they (M=.35, SD=.63) used less self-mentions for describing methodology than L1 English scholars (M=.88, SD=1.00); t(118)=-3.47, p=.00; and the magnitude of the differences in the means was moderate (eta squared=.09). They (M=.52, SD=.93) also used less self-mentions to report findings than L1 English scholars (M=1.32, SD=.99); t(118)= -4.54, p=.00; and the magnitude of the differences in the means was large (eta squared=.15). L1 Chinese scholars are reluctant to use self-mentions to evaluate their research: they (M=.02, SD=.13) used less self-mention markers in this function than L1 English scholars (M=.12, SD=.32); t(118)=
-2.22, p=.03; and the magnitude of the differences in the means was small (eta squared=.04).

Table 13. Mean Scores and T-test Results for Self-mention Functions

Category

Type

N

Mean

SD

t

df

Sig

Providing research background

L1 Chinese

60

.05

.22

1.01

118

.31

L1 English

60

.02

.13

 

 

 

Stating research purpose

L1 Chinese

60

.07

.25

.83

118

.41

L1 English

60

.03

.18

 

 

 

Describing methodology

L1 Chinese

60

.35

.63

-3.47

118

.00

L1 English

60

.88

1.00

 

 

 

Reporting findings

L1 Chinese

60

.52

.93

-4.54

118

.00

L1 English

60

1.32

.99

 

 

 

Interpreting findings

L1 Chinese

60

.02

.13

-2.22

118

.03

L1 English

60

.12

.32

 

 

 

 

A qualitative analysis of the L1 Chinese scholar corpus shows that they tend to use alternative ways to fulfill functions by self-mentions, such as passive voice:

(9) By the temperature gradient method, the gem-diamond single crystals with B2O3-added in the synthetic system of the FeNiMnCo-C are synthesized under 5.3-5.7 GPa and 1200-1600℃. The P-T phase diagram of diamond single crystal growing in the synthesis system of the FeNiMnCo-C-B2O3, is obtained. (C. Phy)

In this paper, using no-transgenic cotton (CCRI 49 cotton) as control, insect community diversity in transgenic Bt cotton (CCRI 79 cotton) fields planted in coastal alkaline soils of Dongying City, Shandong Province and mildly saline and semi dry soils of Zaoqiang County, Hebei Province were investigated in 2013 and 2014. (C. Bio)

metadiscoursive nouns (Jiang & Hyland, 2016; Jiang & Hyland, 2017) such as this research, this study, the results, etc.:

(10) The research revealed that AKTIP gene involved in C. semilaevis immune response. (C. Bio)

Results showed that, in the two case of spray and no-spray, the total number of individuals of insect communities and pest sub-communities in transgenic Btcotton fields were lower than those in non-transgenic cotton, and these insect communities and pest sub-communities differed significantly. (C. Bio)

The numerical calculation results show that the closed toroidal guide does no longer have zero magnetic fields near the magnetic field minimum, and that the magnetic field fluctuation of the guide is smaller. (C. Phy)

impersonal phrase such as “it is believed”:

(11) Similarly, in the four-qubit cluster state case, if a series of flip operations is exerted on all qubits, it is shown that the multipartite entanglement can be recovered to the maximum 1.0. (C. Phy)

It is observed that the sharp Raman bands of synthetic jadeite samples are consistent with those of the natural jadeite. (C. Phy)

or other phrases that can hide the identity of the scholar:

(12) Cell toxicity experiments show that both two kinds of gold nanoclusters have no cytotoxicity even at the high concentration of 100 mg/L. (C. Chem)

Therefore, a new way for quantitative estimation of the composition in n-alkane mixtures was developed using the temperature effect of the near-infrared spectra. (C. Chem)

The new design concept of the similar Liu chaotic system shows a very high practical value. It will lay a certain foundation for the underwater acoustic communication of the ocean internet of things in the future. (C. Phy)

 

Conclusion

This study compared the use of metadiscoursal resources in English RA abstracts by L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars in hard disciplines, which sheds light on how non-native English speaking scholars interact with their academic peers worldwide.

We show that L1 Chinese scholars used more interactive but less interactional metadiscourse resources than L1 English scholars on the whole. The t-tests confirmed that L1 Chinese scholars used significantly more code glosses in interactive metadiscourse and less self-mentions in interactional metadiscourse. The analysis shows that code glosses in RA abstracts in this study mainly serve two functions: reformulation and exemplification, and both L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars used significantly more reformulation markers than exemplification markers, which is in line with the findings from previous studies. L1 Chinese scholars used significantly less self-mentions probably because they want to remain objective and impersonal about their research, and to avoid criticism and refutation by refraining from direct communication with their readers. We also propose three types of functions that parentheses perform as reformulation markers in the two corpora: introducing acronyms or abbreviations for academic/technical terms, providing clarification for academic/technical terms, and presenting statistical values, and five types of functions that self-mentions mainly perform: providing research background, stating research purpose, describing methodology, reporting findings, and interpreting findings.

There are a number of limitations to this study. First of all, the sizes of the corpora are relatively small, with only RA abstracts, and the number of disciplines is limited. Future studies could use larger corpora (with complete RAs in a wider range of disciplines), to compare differences between non-English native scholars and L1 English scholars. Second, we did not include scholars’ viewpoints on why they choose to use metadiscoursal resources the way they did. Future research could interview scholars to obtain their views on why metadiscoursal resources are used the way it is in their academic writing.

 

 

 

Funding

This work was supported by the Social Sciences Youth Funds of the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China [Grant number: 18YJC740109], and Chongqing Social Sciences Key Research Bases Funds [Grant number: 18SKB060].

 

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the Editor, the anonymous reviewers and the language editor of Applied Research on English Language, for their suggestions and comments.

I would also like to thank Professor Guangwei Hu from Nanyang Technological University for his help with the calculation of inter-rater agreement for this research. My heartfelt thanks also go to Professor John M. Swales, for his help with the procedure of determining whether the authors of one paper are native speakers of English.



[1] In this study, we use terms such as “hard sciences”, “hard fields” and “hard disciplines” to refer to natural sciences, and terms such as “soft sciences”, “soft fields” and “soft disciplines” to refer to humanities and social sciences.

[2] The guidelines (Cohen, 1988, as cited in Pallant, 2010) for interpreting eta squared are: .01=small effect, .06=moderate effect, .14=large effect.

[3] The L1 Chinese sub-corpora are referred to as C. Chem, C. Bio, and C. Phy, and the L1 English sub-corpora are referred to as E. Chem, E. Bio, and E. Phy.

[4] General Administration of Press and Publication of the People’s Republic of China is the administrative agency responsible for regulating and distributing news, print and Internet publications in China. This includes granting publication licenses for periodicals and books.

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Appendix A. Email to the Authors

Dear Professor ________,

My name is Jing Wei, and I am an associate professor at Southwest University, China; I hold a PhD in applied linguistics. I am now conducting a research comparing the use of metadiscourse in English research article abstracts in hard disciplines by L1 Chinese and L1 English scholars. I would like to include the abstract of your paper entitled “…”, in my corpus for native speaker of English, and would like to ask for you permission. If you give me the permission to use your abstract, I would also like to confirm whether you are a native speaker of English. A native speaker of English acquires English as her/his first language since s/he is a baby, using English as the primary means of concept formation and communication.

Thank you very much for taking the time to read my email, and I look forward to your reply.

 

Yours sincerely,

Jing

Southwest University, Chongqing, China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B. Distribution of the Two Corpora

Table 1. L1 Chinese scholars’ abstracts

 

Source

Abstracts

Words

Words per abstract

Biology corpus

Bulletin of Botany

5

861

172.2

Biodiversity Science

5

1431

286.2

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology

5

851

170.2

Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica

5

1442

288.4

Chemistry corpus

Acta Chimica Sinica

5

1673

334.6

Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering(China)

5

945

189.0

Environmental Chemistry

5

804

160.8

Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry

5

1102

220.4

Physics corpus

Acta Physica Sinica

5

1802

360.4

Acta Geophysica Sinica

5

978

195.6

Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics

5

780

156.0

Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics

5

639

127.8

Table 2. L1 English scholars’ abstracts

 

Source

Abstracts

Words

Words per abstract

Biology corpus

Genome Biology

5

1035

207

Molecular Systems Biology

5

953

190.6

Systematic Biology

5

1499

299.8

Nature Cell Biology

5

729

145.8

Chemistry corpus

Nature Materials

5

791

158.2

Nature Chemistry

5

758

151.6

Journal of the American Chemical Society

5

1149

229.8

Chemical Science

5

962

192.4

Physics corpus

Nature Nanotechnology

5

788

157.6

Ultramicroscopy

5

784

156.8

Nature physics

5

779

155.8

Light: Science & Applications

5

792

158.4

 

Appendix C. Research Articles from which Abstracts were Taken

Biology (L1 Chinese)

1. Li, D.M., Wang, L.Y., Zhang, L.Y., Tie, Z.Y. & Mao, H.P. (2016). Mechanism of Arabidopsis Short Peptide Hormones PROPEP Gene Family in the Root Growth. Bulletin of Botany, 51(2), 202-209.

2. Li, H., Zhang, G.C., Xie, H.CH., Xu, J.W., Li, CH.R. & Sun, J.W. (2016). The Effect of Phenol Concentration on Photosynthetic Physiological Parameters of Salix babylonica. Bulletin of Botany, 51(1), 31-39.

3. Zhou, R., Wang, B., Yang, R., Li, SH., Fan, L.L., Zeng, Q.CH. & Luo, Q. (2016). Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Rice Blast Resistance in Japonica Rice Variety Ziyu44. Bulletin of Botany, 50(6), 691-698.

4. Wei, H.CH., Liu, Y., Tang, X.CH., Yang, S.X., Zou, M.J., Hu, SH.K. & Feng X.ZH. (2016). The Exine-dehisced Microspore Embryos Have the Propersuspensor Differentiation in Molecular Level. Bulletin of Botany, 50(5): 573-582.

5. Yan, M., Zhang, X.Y., Han, S.Y., Huang, B.Y., Dong, W.ZH., Liu, H. & Sun, Z.Q. (2016). Genome-wide Association Study of Agronomic and Yield Traits in a Worldwide Collection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Germplasm. Bulletin of Botany, 50(4): 460-472.

6. Liu, Y., Xu, Y., Shi, S.L., Peng, P.H. & Shen, Z.H. (2016). Quantitative classification and environmental interpretations for the structural differentiation of the plant communities in the dry valley of Jinshajiang River. Biodiversity Science, 24(4), 407-420.

7. Luo, J.Y., Zhang, SH., Zhu, X.ZH., Wang, CH.Y. Lü, L.M., Li, CH.H. & Cui, J.J. (2016). Insect community diversity in transgenic Bt cotton in saline and dry soils. Biodiversity Science, 24(3), 332-340.

8. Li, SH.SH., Wang, ZH.W., Yang, J.J. (2016). Changes in soil microbial communities during litter decomposition. Biodiversity Science, 24(2), 195-204.

9. Xue, J.H., Jiang, L., Ma, X.L., Bing, Y.H., Zhao, S.CH. & Ma, K.P. (2016). Identification of lotus cultivars using DNA fingerprinting. Biodiversity Science, 24(1), 3-11.

10. Bi, M.J., Shen, M.W., Zhou, K.X., Mao, L.F., Chen, SH.B. & Peng, P.H. (2016). Geographical variance of ladybird morphology and environmental correlates in China. Biodiversity Science, 23(6), 775-783.

11. Shao, J.G., Jiang, H.J., Chang, J.X., Zhang, B.J., Li, SH.CH. & Su, Y. (2016) Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of IgG-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 32(5), 577-583.

12. Wu, W.T, Ju, M.T., Liu, J.P & Liu, B.Q. (2016). Effect of ensilage on bioconversion of switchgrass to ethanol based on liquid hot water pretreatment. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 32(4), 457-467.

13. Xu, X.J., Zha, X.D., Che, Y.Y., Ma, L.J., Wu, S.Q., Yang, P.L....& Yao, B. (2016). Expression of Pleurocidin from winter flounder in Escherichia coli and optimization of culture conditions. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 32(3), 365~374.

14. Wang, J.Y., Wang, W.SH., Zhao, H. & Yang, K.Q. (2016). The modified bacterial two-hybrid system. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 32(2), 231-240.

15. Qin, Y.J., Zhang, T.H.& Ye, X. (2016). Preparation and detection of anti-influenza A virus polymerase basic protein 1 polyclonal antibody. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 32(1), 105-113.

16. Sun, L.M., Yu, M.J., Chen, Y.D., Chen, X.J., Liu, Y., Qiu X.M. & Sha ZH.X. (2016). Akt-interacting protein gene cloning and its expression profile in response to pathogen infection in half smooth tongue sole (cynoglossus semilaevis). Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 40(3), 467-473.

17. Yan, H.L., Chun, W.Y., Wang J.H., Liu, X.Y. & Zhang, J.SH. (2016). Circadian rhythmicity of clock genes in liver and heart of mandarin fish (siniperca chuatsi). Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 40(2), 243-251.

18. Zhao, J.X., Li X.Q., Peng, S. Zheng, X.M., Li B.A., Wei, J. & Leng, X.J. (2016). Comparative study on the utilization of different lysine sources by channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus). Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 40(1), 19-26.

19. Zheng, Q.Q., Liu, T.Q., Li, T.T., Xu, J., Long, M. Wang, X.H....& Li, A.H. (2016). The effects of jade screen power on the non-specific immune response and the expression of the related genes in fish. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 39(6), 1076-1084.

20. Xiong, Q., Huang, L.CH., Ye, SH.W., Li, L. Song, L.R. & Wu, Y. (2016). The seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the primary productivities of phytoplankton in the three gorges reservoir. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 39(5), 853-860.

 

Chemistry (L1 Chinese)

1. Gao, G.B., Gong, D.J., Zhang, M.X. & Sun, T.L. (2016). Chiral gold nanoclusters: a new near-infrared fluorescent probe. Acta Chim. Sinica, 74(4), 363-368.

2. Wang, L., Li, X., Zheng, F., Guo, Y.X., Zhang, ZH.Q., Chi, H.J... & Lu. G.H. (2016). Preparation of polymer nanotube using self-assembled metal organic nanotube as template. Acta Chim. Sinica, 74(3), 259-264.

3. Qi, L.H., Cai, W.SH. & Shao, X.G. (2016). Effect of temperature on near-infrared spectra of n-alkanes. Acta Chim. Sinica, 74(2), 172-178.

4. Zhang, Q.CH., Lü, J. & Luo, S.ZH. (2016). Carbocation lewis acid catalyzed redox-neutral α-c (sp3)h arylation of amines. Acta Chim. Sinica, 74(1), 61-66.

5. Han, Y., Meng, ZH., Chen & CH.F. (2015). Complexation of triptycene-derived macrotricyclic host with π-extended viologens. Acta Chim. Sinica, 73(11), 1147-1152.

6. Gong, K., Hua, Y.X., Xu, C.Y., Li, J., Li, Y. & Zhou ZH.R. (2016). Viscosity and electrical conductivity of Betaine•HCl-6EG-nNiCl2•6H2O deep eutectic ionic liquids. CIESC Journal, 67(4), 1090-1097.

7. Tang, Q., Ye, S.SH. & Wang Y.D. (2016). Mixing time and flow characteristic in square pump-mix mixer under different scale-up criteria. CIESC Journal, 67(2), 448-457.

8. Zhang, Y.K., Jia, Z.K., Zhen, B. & Han, M.H. (2016). Acetylene dimerization catalyzed by Nieuwland catalyst. CIESC Journal, 67(1), 294-299.

9. Ye, F.Y., Mei, L., Xiao, J., Xia, Q.B. & Li, ZH. (2015). UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization of gasoline using bi-functional Ti-Si-O material. CIESC Journal, 66(12), 4858-4864.

10. Liu, Y.Y., Huang, Y., He, J.J., Xiao, J., Xia Q.B. & Li, ZH. (2015). Adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO/N2/CO2 on MOF-74(Ni). CIESC Journal, 66(11), 4469-4475.

11. Wu, D.M., Li, Q.F. & Wu, CH.Y. (2016). Adsorption of dissolved organic matter on ferrallitic soils. Environmental Chemistry, 35(4), 639-650.

12. Qin, J., Jiang, L.W., Yang, CH.M., Guo, B.B., Sun, X.F. & Wang, SH.G. (2016). Preparation of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity. Environmental Chemistry, 35(3), 445-450. 

13. Hou, X.X., Dong, SH.N., Zhang, J. & Bi, SH.P. (2016). Density functional theory study of the influences of the third hydration shell on the characteristics for the water-exchange reactions of Al(H2O)63+(aq) in aqueous solution. Environmental Chemistry, 35(2), 246-253.

14. Wu, CH.Y., Bai, L., Gu, F. & Lu, W.L. (2016). Simultaneous determination of 27 triazine herbicides in water using solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Environmental Chemistry, 35(1), 26-34.

15. Han, L.F., Sun, K., Kang, M.J., Wu, F.CH. & Xing, B.SH. (2015). Influence of functional groups and pore characteristics of organic matter on the sorption of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Environmental Chemistry, 34(11): 1811-1820.       

16. Zhang, X.D., Xu, Y., Zhang, T. & Lü, J.J. (2016). Assessing Plant Antioxidants by Cellular Antioxidant Activity Assay Based on Microfluidic Cell Chip with Arrayed Microchannels. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 44(4), 604-609.

17. Zhan, N., Huang, Y., Rao, ZH. & Zhao, X.L. (2016). Fast Detection of Carbonate and Bicarbonate in Groundwater and Lake Water by Coupled Ion Selective Electrodes. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 44(3), 355-360.

18. Ma, Y.Q., Peng, ZH.K., Chen, Y.J., Yang, J., Xiao, Y.K. & Zhang, Y.L. (2016). High Precise Determination of Bromine Isotopic Ratios by Positive Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Static Multicollection of Cs2Br+ Ions. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 44(2), 186-191

19. Tian, C.Y., Ding, X.L., Yin, J.W. & Duan, Y.X. (2016). Preliminary Study of Microfabricated Glow Discharge Plasma Used for Mass Spectrometry Imaging. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 44(1), 8-12.

20. Chen, Y., Peng, L.X., Wang, X.CH., Li, Y.Q., Liu, J.X. & Wang, G.W. (2015). High-throughput Investigation of Germination of Individual Bacillus Thuringiensis HD-1 Spores by Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy Imaging. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 43(12), 1787-1793.

 

Physics (L1 Chinese)

1. Zong, X.L. & Yang, M. (2016). Scheme for protecting multipartite quantum entanglement. Acta Physica Sinica, 65(8), 30-35.

2. Liu, J.M., Yang, X., Gao, Y.L. & Liu, F.C. (2016). Application of similar Liu system in underwater weak signal detection. Acta Physica Sinica, 65(7), 40-50.

3. Zhang, J.F., Xu, X.P., Jiang, X.J., Li, X.L., Zhang, H.CH. & Wang, Y.ZH. (2016). Three wire toroidal magnetic guide based on the vertical leads and ac current modulation. Acta Physica Sinica, 65(6), 16-24.

4. Liu, L.N., Qin, Y.K., Zhang, D.M., Zhang, Y.SH., Sui, Y.M. & Liang ZH.ZH. (2016). Syntheses of B2O3-doped gem-diamond single crystals. Acta Physica Sinica, 65(5), 16-22.

5. Cui, SH.Y., Lü, X.X. & Xin, J. (2016). Collapse and evolution of wave field based on a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Acta Physica Sinica, 65(4), 9-15.

6. Li, J., Cao, X.Y. & Cheng ZH.G. (2016). Analysis of spectral characteristics for wind velocity in the low layer of the atmosphere in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei city cluster area during summer. Chinese Journal Geophysics, 59(5), 1553-1565.

7. Cheng, H.D., Huang, J.SH. & Fu, R.SH. (2016). Numerical simulation on convective thinning of the cratonic lithosphere. Chinese Journal Geophysics, 59(4), 1293-1308.

8. Wang, L.CH., Chang, X. & Wang Y.B. (2016). Forward modeling of pseudo P waves in TTI medium using staggered grid. Chinese Journal Geophysics, 59(3), 1046-1058.

9. Wang, X.X., Fang, H.X. & Niu, J. (2016). Analysis of ionospheric irregularities in F layer based on COSMIC data. Chinese Journal Geophysics, 59(2), 419-425.

10. Yu, Y., Chen, Y.SH. & Jian, H.CH. (2016). SKS wave splitting study of the transition zone at the central portion of the North China Craton. Chinese Journal Geophysics, 59(1), 141-151.

11. Zhao, Y.ZH., Li, J. & Ma, T.B. (2016). Experiment on Spread Processes of the Spreadable Aimed Warhead. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 30(2), 116-122.

12. Chen, G., Li, H.P. & Miao, SH.Q. (2016). Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity for Eclogite and Basalt under High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 30 (1), 27-31.

13. Chen, W., Ma, H.H., Shen, ZH.W. & Xue, B. (2015). Numerical Simulation of Influence of Different Modes of Initiation on the Forming of Radial Shaped Jet. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 29(6), 419-424.

14. Li, Y., Du, J.G., Xie, CH. & Zhou, ZH.H. (2015). Effect of Temperature on Fe-Mg Partition of Garnet during the High Pressure and High Temperature Metamorphism of Pelitic Rock. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 29(5), 329-336.

15. Hu, Y., He, D.W., Hu, Q.W., Liu, F.M., Liu, Y.J., Wang, Y.K. & Zhang, Y. (2015). Synthesis and Characterization of Jadeite-Jade under High Pressure and High Temperature. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 29(4), 241-247.

16. Cai, L. ZH., Cui, X.W., Liu, J., Xue, L. & Ding, R. (2016). Preliminary investigation on the integrated simulation of the HL-2M divertor. Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics, 36(1), 1-7.

17. Lu, Y., Cai, L.J., Zou, H., Li, G.SH., Liu, J. & Liu, D.Q. (2015). Numerical simulation and analysis for the cooling of HL-2M toroidal field coils. Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics, 35(4) 320-326.

18. Zhang, F.J. & Zhang, CH.H. (2015). Numerical simulation on focused state of strong current ion beam. Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics, 35(3), 284-288.

19. Huang, Y. (2015). A novel high accuracy fast algorithm for dispersion relation of plasma antenna. Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics, 35(2), 103-108.

20. Zhang, M., Yao, L.Y. & Wang, Y.Q. (2015). A remote communication system based on CAN bus technology for PSM high-voltage power supplies. Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics, 35(1), 24-29.

 

Biology (L1 English)

1. Marioni, R. E., Shah, S., McRae, A. F., Chen, B. H., Colicino, E., Harris, S. E., ... & Pattie, A. (2015). DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Genome biology, 16(1), 25

2. Hubbard, A., Lewis, C. M., Yoshida, K., Ramirez-Gonzalez, R. H., de Vallavieille-Pope, C., Thomas, J., ... & Saunders, D. G. (2015). Field pathogenomics reveals the emergence of a diverse wheat yellow rust population. Genome biology, 16(1), 23.

3. Gerdes, P., Richardson, S.R., & Faulkner, G.J. (2016). TET enzymes: double agents in the transposable element–host genome conflict. Genome biology, 17(1), 259.

4. Mathelier, A., Lefebvre, C., Zhang, A. W., Arenillas, D. J., Ding, J., Wasserman, W. W., & Shah, S. P. (2015). Cis-regulatory somatic mutations and gene-expression alteration in B-cell lymphomas. Genome biology, 16(1), 84.

5. Brackley, C. A., Brown, J. M., Waithe, D., Babbs, C., Davies, J., Hughes, J. R., ... & Marenduzzo, D. (2016). Predicting the three-dimensional folding of cis-regulatory regions in mammalian genomes using bioinformatic data and polymer models. Genome biology, 17(1), 59.

6. Seaton, D.D., Smith, R.W., Song, Y.H., MacGregor, D.R., Stewart, K., Steel, G., ... & Halliday, K.J. (2015). Linked circadian outputs control elongation growth and flowering in response to photoperiod and temperature. Molecular systems biology, 11(1), 776.

7. Diner, B. A., Li, T., Greco, T. M., Crow, M. S., Fuesler, J. A., Wang, J., & Cristea, I. M. (2015). The functional interactome of PYHIN immune regulators reveals IFIX is a sensor of viral DNA. Molecular systems biology, 11(2), 787.

8. Greulich, P., Scott, M., Evans, M.R., & Allen, R.J. (2015). Growth‐dependent bacterial susceptibility to ribosome‐targeting antibiotics. Molecular systems biology, 11(3), 796.

9. Collins, S. R., Yang, H. W., Bonger, K. M., Guignet, E. G., Wandless, T. J., & Meyer, T. (2015). Using light to shape chemical gradients for parallel and automated analysis of chemotaxis. Molecular systems biology, 11(4), 804.

10. Dey, S. S., Foley, J. E., Limsirichai, P., Schaffer, D. V., & Arkin, A. P. (2015). Orthogonal control of expression mean and variance by epigenetic features at different genomic loci. Molecular systems biology, 11(5), 806.

11. Clarke, J.A., Boyd, C.A. (2015). Methods for the Quantitative Comparison of Molecular Estimates of Clade Age and the Fossil Record. Systematic biology, 64(1), 25-41.

12. Pattison, D.J., Thompson, R.S, Piotrowski, A.K., Asher, R.J. (2015). Phylogeny, Paleontology, and Primates: Do Incomplete Fossils Bias the Tree of Life? Systematic biology, 64(2), 169–186.

13. Sigwart, J.D., Lindberg, D.R. (2015). Consensus and Confusion in Molluscan Trees: Evaluating Morphological and Molecular Phylogenies. Systematic biology, 64(3), 384–395.

14. Soul, L.C., & Friedman, M. (2015). Taxonomy and Phylogeny Can Yield Comparable Results in Comparative Paleontological Analyze. Systematic biology, 64(4), 608–620.

15. Giarla, T.C., & Esselstyn, J.A. (2015). The Challenges of Resolving a Rapid, Recent Radiation: Empirical and Simulated Phylogenomics of Philippine Shrews. Systematic biology, 64(5), 727–740.

16. Pagan, J.K., Marzio, A., Jones, M.J.K., Saraf, A., Jallepalli, P.V., & Pagano, M. (2015). Degradation of Cep68 and PCNT cleavage mediate Cep215 removal from the PCM to allow centriole separation, disengagement and licensing. Nature cell biology, 17(1), 31-43.

17. Christian N. Cunningham, Joshua M. Baughman, Lilian Phu,     Joy S. Tea, Christine Yu, Mary Coons, Donald S. Kirkpatrick, Baris Bingol & Jacob E. Corn. (2015). USP30 and parkin homeostatically regulate atypical ubiquitin chains on mitochondria. Nature cell biology, 17(2), 160-169.

18. Murrow, L., Malhortra, R., & Debnath, J. (2015). ATG12–ATG3 interacts with Alix to promote basal autophagic flux and late endosome function. Nature cell biology, 17(3), 300-310.

19. Rozbicki, E., Chuai, M., Karjalainen, A. I., Song, F., Sang, H. M., Martin, R., ... & Weijer, C. J. (2015). Myosin-II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation. Nature cell biology, 17(4), 397-408.

20. Luxenburg, C., Heller, E., Pasolli, H. A., Chai, S., Nikolova, M., Stokes, N., & Fuchs, E. (2015). Wdr1-mediated cell shape dynamics and cortical tension are essential for epidermal planar cell polarity. Nature cell biology, 17(5), 592-604.

 

Chemistry (L1 English)

1. Engel, M., Damasceno, P.F., Phillips, C.L., & Clotzer, S.C. (2015). Computational self-assembly of a one-component icosahedral quasicrystal. Nature materials, 14(1), 109-116.

2. Kwon, S. G., Krylova, G., Phillips, P. J., Klie, R. F., Chattopadhyay, S., Shibata, T., ... & Shevchenko, E. V. (2015). Heterogeneous nucleation and shape transformation of multicomponent metallic nanostructures. Nature materials, 14(2), 215-223.

3. Stoop, N., Lagrange, R., Terwagne, D., Reis, P.M., & Dunkel, J. (2015). Curvature-induced symmetry breaking determines elastic surface patterns. Nature materials, 14(3), 337-342.

4. Sachet, E., Shelton, C.T., Harris, J.S., Gaddy, B.E., Irving, D.L., & Maria, J. (2015). Dysprosium-doped cadmium oxide as a gateway material for mid-infrared plasmonics. Nature materials, 14(4), 414-420.

5. Rascón-Ramos, H., Artés, J. M., Li, Y., & Hihath, J. (2015). Binding configurations and intramolecular strain in single-molecule devices. Nature materials, 14(5), 517-522.

6. Frederix, P. W., Scott, G. G., Abul-Haija, Y. M., Kalafatovic, D., Pappas, C. G., Javid, N., ... & Tuttle, T. (2015). Exploring the sequence space for (tri-) peptide self-assembly to design and discover new hydrogels. Nature chemistry, 7(1), 30-37.

7. Que, E. L., Bleher, R., Duncan, F. E., Kong, B. Y., Gleber, S. C., Vogt, S., ... & Woodruff, T. K. (2015). Quantitative mapping of zinc fluxes in the mammalian egg reveals the origin of fertilization-induced zinc sparks. Nature chemistry, 7(2), 130-139.

8. Dell, E. J., Capozzi, B., Xia, J., Venkataraman, L., & Campos, L. M. (2015). Molecular length dictates the nature of charge carriers in single-molecule junctions of oxidized oligothiophenes. Nature chemistry, 7(3), 209-214.

9. Kondratuk, D. V., Perdigão, L. M., Esmail, A. M., O'Shea, J. N., Beton, P. H., & Anderson, H. L. (2015). Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers. Nature chemistry, 7(4), 317-322.

10. Vizcaino, M.I., & Crawford, J.M. (2015). The colibactin warhead crosslinks DNA. Nature chemistry, 7(5), 411-417.

11. Janda, A., Vlaisavljevich, B., Lin, L. C., Smit, B., & Bell, A. T. (2016). Effects of zeolite structural confinement on adsorption thermodynamics and reaction kinetics for monomolecular cracking and dehydrogenation of n-butane. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(14), 4739-4756.

12. Onel, B., Carver, M., Wu, G., Timonina, D., Kalarn, S., Larriva, M., & Yang, D. (2016). A new G-quadruplex with hairpin loop immediately upstream of the human BCL2 P1 promoter modulates transcription. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(8), 2563-2570.

13. Olshansky, L., Stubbe, J., & Nocera, D. G. (2016). Charge-Transfer Dynamics at the α/β Subunit Interface of a Photochemical Ribonucleotide Reductase. Journal of the American Chemical Society138(4), 1196-1205.

14. Peters, G.M., Skala, L.P., & Davis, J.T. (2015). A Molecular Chaperone for G4-Quartet Hydrogels. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(1), 134–139.

15. McIntosh, J.A., Heel, T., Buller, A.R., Chio, L., & Arnold, F.H. (2015). Structural Adaptability Facilitates Histidine Heme Ligation in a Cytochrome P450. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(43), 13861–13865.

16. Miller, R. G., & Brooker, S. (2016). Reversible quantitative guest sensing via spin crossover of an iron (II) triazole. Chemical Science, 7(4), 2501-2505.

17. Wood, C. S., Ronson, T. K., McConnell, A. J., Roberts, D. A., & Nitschke, J. R. (2016). Dual stimuli-induced formation of a μ-hydroxido bridged [Zn 9 L 5 (μ-OH) 6] 12+ half-pipe. Chemical Science, 7(3), 1702-1706.

18. Metherell, A. J., & Ward, M. D. (2016). Imposing control on self-assembly: rational design and synthesis of a mixed-metal, mixed-ligand coordination cage containing four types of component. Chemical Science, 7(2), 910-915.

19. Goldfogel, M.J., & Meek, S.J. (2016). Diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal tertiary and N-substituted quaternary stereogenic centers by catalytic hydroalkylation of dienes. Chemical Science, 7(1), 4079-4084.

20. Lummiss, J.A.M., Higman, C.S., Fyson, D.L., McDonald, R., & Fogg, D.E. The divergent effects of strong NHC donation in catalysis. Chemical Science, 6(12), 6739-6746.

Justin A. M. Lummiss,a  Carolyn S. Higman,a  Devon L. Fyson,a  Robert McDonaldb  and  Deryn E. Fogg*a

 

Physics (L1 English)

1. Viola, K.L., Sbarbora, J., Sureka, R., De, M., Bicca, M.A., & Klein, W.L. (2015). Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Nature nanotechnology, 10(1), 91–98.

2. Tetard, L., Passian, A., Farahi, R. H., Thundat, T., & Davison, B. H. (2015). Opto-nanomechanical spectroscopic material characterization. Nature nanotechnology, 10(10), 870-877.

3. Day, R. W., Mankin, M. N., Gao, R., No, Y. S., Kim, S. K., Bell, D. C., ... & Lieber, C. M. (2015). Plateau–Rayleigh crystal growth of periodic shells on one-dimensional substrates. Nature nanotechnology, 10(4), 345-352.

4. Powell, J.J., Thomas-McKay, E., Thoree, V., Robertson, J., Hewitt, R.E., & Pele, L.C. (2015). An endogenous nanomineral chaperones luminal antigen and peptidoglycan to intestinal immune cells. Nature nanotechnology, 10(4), 361–369.

5. Surwade, S. P., Smirnov, S. N., Vlassiouk, I. V., Unocic, R. R., Veith, G. M., Dai, S., & Mahurin, S. M. (2015). Water desalination using nanoporous single-layer graphene. Nature nanotechnology, 10(5), 459-464.

6. Warren, A. D., Harniman, R. L., Collins, A. M., Davis, S. A., Younes, C. M., Flewitt, P. E. J., & Scott, T. B. (2015). Comparison between magnetic force microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction for ferrite quantification in type 321 stainless steel. Ultramicroscopy, 148, 1-9.

7. Bobynko, J., MacLaren, I., & Craven, A. J. (2015). Spectrum imaging of complex nanostructures using DualEELS: I. digital extraction replicas. Ultramicroscopy, 149, 9-20.

8. Coakley, K.J., Imtiaz, A., Wallis, T.M., & Weber, J.C. (2015). Adaptive and robust statistical methods for processing near-field scanning microwave microscopy images. Ultramicroscopy, 150, 1-9.

9. Brown, H.G., D’Alfonso, A.J., Forbes, B.D., & Allen, L.J. (2015). Addressing preservation of elastic contrast in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy, 151, 90-97.

10. McVitie, S., McGrouther, D., McFadzean, S., MacLaren, D.A., Shea, K.J.O., & Benitez, M.J. (2015). Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy, 152, 57-62.

11. Glasbrenner, J. K., Mazin, I. I., Jeschke, H. O.,    Hirschfeld, P. J., Fernandes, R. M.,& Valentí, R. (2015). Effect of magnetic frustration on nematicity and superconductivity in iron chalcogenides. Nature Physics, 11, 953–958.

12. Novikov, S., Sweeney, T., Robinson, J. E., Premaratne, S. P., Suri, B., Wellstood, F. C., & Palmer, B. S. (2016). Raman coherence in a circuit quantum electrodynamics lambda system. Nature Physics, 12, 75-79.

13. Hagen, G., Ekström, A., Forssén, C., Jansen, G. R., Nazarewicz, W., Papenbrock, T., ... & Drischler, C. (2016). Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus. Nature Physics, 12, 186-190.

14. Aguilar, J., & Goldman, D. I. (2016). Robophysical study of jumping dynamics on granular media. Nature Physics, 12, 278–283

15. Schmid, E.M., Bakalar, M.H., Choudhuri, K., Weichsel, J., Ann, H.S., …, & Fletcher, D.A. (2015). Size-dependent protein segregation at membrane interfaces. Nature Physics, 12, 704–711.

16. Lee, K., Lee, J., Mazor, B.A., & Forrest, S.R. (2015). Transforming the cost of solar-to-electrical energy conversion: Integrating thin-film GaAs solar cells with non-tracking mini-concentrators. Light: Science & Applications, 4, e288.

17. Papaioannou, M., Plum, E., Valente, J., Rogers, E. T., & Zheludev, N. I. (2015). Two-dimensional control of light with light on metasurfaces. Light: Science & Applications, 4, e16070.

18. Patel, R.N., Schroder, T., Wan, N., Li, L., Mouradian, S.L., & Englund, D.R. (2016). Efficient photon coupling from a diamond nitrogen vacancy center by integration with silica fiber. Light: Science & Applications, 5, e16032.

19. Allsop, T., Arif, R., Neal, R., Kalli, K., Kundrát, V., Rozhin, A., ... & Webb, D. J. (2016). Photonic gas sensors exploiting directly the optical properties of hybrid carbon nanotube localized surface plasmon structures. Light: Science and Applications5, e16036.

20. Abate, Y., Gamage, S., Li, Z., Babicheval, V., Javani, M.H., & Stockman, M.I. (2016). Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus. Light: Science & Applications, 5, e16162.