Constructing and Validating an EFL Hidden Curriculum Scale Using the Rasch Model: EFL Teachers’ Perspectives

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of English, Torbat-e-Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e- Heydarieh, Iran,

2 English Department, Torbat-e-Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran



Whether acknowledged or neglected by educators, the hidden curriculum is present in every institute. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a scale to measure language teachers’ perspectives on English as a foreign language (EFL) hidden curriculum by the application of the Rasch model. The review of the literature indicates the lack of sufficient research on investigation of EFL hidden curriculum components in the view of EFL teachers and learners. To fill the existing gap in the literature, a 40-item questionnaire was devised and validated, then 164 Iranian EFL teachers, teaching at different language institutes were asked to complete the questionnaire. In this study, hidden curriculum components are based on Saylor, Alexander and Lewis’ (1981) perspectives. Accordingly, items were classified into three different constructs, namely 1. The social atmosphere (including 15 items), 2. The organizational structure of the English Language Institute (consisting 14 items), 3. The interaction between teachers and learners (including 11 items). The results revealed that the Rasch model fitted the questionnaire items after removing six items from the scale. Moreover, it is confirmed that the scale enjoyed suitable reliability. This proposes that the questionnaire is potentially valid and can be used as a measure of EFL hidden curriculum. One of the study implications is that the questionnaire designed and validated in this study can be used as a research tool in the future research to assist policymakers and material designers, institutions’ administrators, and language teachers.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 28 July 2020
  • Receive Date: 30 March 2020
  • Revise Date: 04 July 2020
  • Accept Date: 28 July 2020