Factors Influencing Iranian Untrained EFL Raters' Rating Group Oral Discussion Tasks: A Mixed Methods Design

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University, Iran


Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA) approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment.
Persian Abstract:
پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده ایرانی در ارزیابی فعالیت بحث گروهی می پردازد. بدین منظور، 16 زبان آموز از سطوح مختلف انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی به گروه های 4نفره تقسیم شده و یک فعالیت بحث گروهی را انجام دادند. 32 ارزیاب آموزش ندیده نیز بر اساس تمایل شخصی خود انتخاب شدند. ارزیابان، به بحث های گروهی ضبط شده گوش داده و بر اساس قضاوت خود نمره ای بین1 تا 6 به زبان آموزان اعطا کرده و همچنین نظرات خود را درباره ی مواردی که بر نمره دهی آنها مؤثر بود ارائه کردند. محقققین همچنین با ارزیابان مصاحبه ای در مورد نحوه نمره دهی آنها انجام دادند. بخش کمّی به بررسی ویژگی های زبانی دقت، فصاحت، پیچیدگی، و میزان نمونه های کلامی تولید شده توسط زبان آموزان و همبستگی آنها با نمره کسب شده توسط هر زبان آموز پرداخت. میزان گفتار، بعنوان شاخصی از فصاحت و میزان تکلم، با نمرات داده شده رابطه معناداری داشت. بخش کیفی مطالعه ی حاضر از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار است چراکه در این بخش به کمک کدگذاری تحلیل محتوای نظرات ارزیابان، به تعیین سایر عواملی که بر ارزیاب در نمره دهی بحث گروهی مؤثر بودند پرداخته شد. نتایج حاصل حاکی از آن است که ارزیابان نه تنها تحت تأثیر عوامل زبانی کلام هستند بلکه به ویژگی های تعاملی نظیر نقش افراد در بحث گروهی، میزان مشارکت در بحث گروهی و الگوی کلی تعامل نیز در نمره دهی توجه دارند. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند در آموزش ارزیابان در فعالیت های ارزیابی شفاهی گروهی و همچنین در تولید چک لیست های ارزیابی مخصوص ارزیابی شفاهی گروهی مفید باشد.
کلید واژه: ارزیابی شفاهی گروهی، ویژگی های زبانی، تعامل، روش تحقیق ترکیبی، تحلیل محتوا


Main Subjects

The  interactional  nature  of  oral  language  use  has  led  to  an  increase  in  the  incorporation  of
group  discussion  tasks.  In  the  last  couple  of  decades,  the  direct  assessment  of  spoken
language has seen a shift in interest towards tests in which test takers interact with each other,
rather  than  with  an  interviewer.  This  shift  reflects  a  transition  from  conceiving
 of speaking ability as represented by the linguistic features of an individual‟s spoken words
to one of interactive communication.  The initiative to incorporate group tasks into the study
is to help reflect the diversity existing in the daily use of language.
Group  tasks  have  an  orientation  toward  the  social  dimension  of  interaction  in  second
language  oral  assessment.  Coining  the  term  interactional  competence,  Kramsch  (1986)
conceptually attributed to Vygotsky‟s (1978) sociocultural theory. He argued that “successful
interaction  presupposes  …  the  construction  of  a  shared  internal  context  …  that  is  built
through the collaborative effort of the interactional partners” (p. 367).
Group  oral  test  format  is  favoured  due  to  several  advantages  it  offers  as  an  oral
assessment task. The first advantage is that it is relatively practical (Ockey, 2001) since more
than one test taker can be assessed at the same time, and also raters do not need specialized
training for how to conduct effective interviews. The second is that the group oral offers the
potential  of  positive  washback  for  communicative  language  teaching  purposes  (Hilsdon,
1995).  Since  no  intrusion  or  prompting  is  made  by  the  rater,  another  important  practical
advantage  is  the  fact  that  test  administrations  are  potentially  uniform  across  raters,  hence
securing the validity of the test. The  group oral discussion task, is designed in a way that it
yields authentic discourse, since test takers are expected to have discussions similar to those
they might have in the real world.
Review of Literature:
Group oral assessment
The results of the studies carried out on the group oral assessment are contradictory. In fact,
some  of  them  revealed  that  this  task  type  can  lead  to  valid  score  interpretations  and  some
others showed that it does not. There are several studies that seem to confirm the validity of
group oral discussion task. 
Bonk and Ockey (2003) concluded that the group oral does have potential for yielding
valid  score-based  inferences.  Fulcher  (1996)  showed  that  variance  contributed  by  task  type
was negligible, and since fit statistics on a partial credit Rasch model indicated that all three
tasks  were  operating  on  a  one-dimensional  scale,  they  were  presumably  tapping  the  same 

language  knowledge  or  skills.  Arguing  for  the  validity  of  oral  group  discussion  task,  Van
Moere (2006) examined scores produced on a large-scale group oral performance test showed
that they are useful for making general inferences about a candidate‟s ability of oral second
language proficiency. 
However, there are studies that shed doubt on the validity of the group discussion as a
speaking  assessment task. Two studies questioned the validity of the score-based inferences
yielded from the group oral. He and Dai (2006), indicate that at least in certain contexts, the
validity of the score interpretations yielded from the group oral are suspect. In the same vein,
Shohamy et al. (1986) speculate that the group task elicited a different range of language to
one-on-one interviews,  and added to their  claim that a  group test should be included as one
part  of  an  oral  test  battery.  The  results  of  these  studies  may  challenge  the  assertion  that  the
group discussion tends to produce natural and extended conversation, which some maintain is
appropriate  for  the  all-round  display  of  speaking  ability  in  context  (Van  Lier,  1989).
However, one point missing in this regard is the issue of how the task is implemented. The
researchers  should  set  the  design  and  procedure  in  a  way  the  test  takers  do  believe  in  the
authenticity of the situation.
Oral assessment and linguistic features of speech samples
Another important line of research in oral assessment is  the linguistic features of the speech
samples  produced.  The  most  important  linguistic  features  of  speech  sample  referred  to  in
literature are accuracy, fluency and complexity which are abbreviated as CAF. They are the
most widely used measures of oral proficiency. 
Several  studies  have  been  carried  out  which  investigate  the  linguistic  features  of  the
speech  sample  and  the  scores  assigned  to  them.  Although  they  all  investigate  how  CAF
measures  predicts  the  overall  speaking  proficiency,  each  tap  on  different  related  issue  with
varying variables, methods and instruments (Iwashita, 2008; Ginther, Dimova, & Yang et al.,
Iwashita  (2010)  nicely  summarizes  the  studies  done  on  linguistic  features  and  oral
proficiency scores:
„A considerable number of studies have investigated features of oral proficiency using
various  methods.  The  results  differ,  however,  depending  on  the  data  type  and  the
methodology.  That  is,  from  studies  that  use  data  in  the  form  of  ratings  and  feedback  on
ratings, grammatical accuracy is the principal determining factor for raters assigning a global
score, with some variation in the contribution of other factors depending on proficiency level. 
On  the  other  hand,  in  studies  that  conduct  in-built  analyses  of  learner  performance,
vocabulary  and  fluency  are  the  principal  factors,  but,  depending  on  the  level,  other  features
come into play‟(p.5).
Oral assessment and extra linguistic features
The  two  studies  stated  below,  are  among  the  studies  which  have  used  Content  Analysis  to
come  to  a  more  meaningful  picture  of  group  oral  assessment  task  analyses  revealing  an  in-depth understanding about the underrepresented features accounting for the scores the raters
Lazaraton  and  Davis  (2008)  examined  test takers‟ discourse features to pinpoint
discourse features that could account for the scores assigned by the raters. By providing turn-by-turn interactional codings, the authors showed that paired discussion enabled test takers to
position  themselves  as  being  proficient,  interactive,  supportive,  and  assertive.  The  findings
showed that “language proficiency identity may be locally constructed, mediated, and
displayed by test takers in their task talk” (Lazaraton & Davis, 2008, p. 329). The findings
revealed that proficiency is fluid and changing depending on the interlocutor and the identity
resources they brings to the interaction, which indicates interlocutor influence on candidates‟
oral performance (cited in Sun, 2014). 
Luk  (2010)  conducted  a  comprehensive  investigation  of  interactional  features  in  a
group oral assessment. The results revealed eight key discourse features reflecting test takers‟
attempt to gain a high scores to present themselves as efficient speech partner and not caring
about an authentic communication.  
As evident in the these studies, using micro-analytic approaches like CA can provide an
in-depth  and  fine-grained  description  of  the  interactional  dynamics  available  in  paired  and
groups oral tasks. 
Purpose of the study:
Despite their several merits, as mentioned above, group oral tasks, as an oral assessment task
type,  have  not  received  the  attention  they  deserve  among  researchers  in  terms  of  the  raters
rating  such  tasks.  Being  human,  raters  as  an  important  facet  in  oral  proficiency  assessment,
are  inevitably  subject  to  a  wide  range  of  factors  that  may  reinforce  or  threaten  the  validity
and fairness of the scores they assign to a test taker. Raters are usually affected by their prior
experiences and personal backgrounds as they select, weigh, and integrate information into a
final judgment. Raters‟ performance and how they come to a decision about a specific score
has  been  subject  of  different  studies.  Although  the  literature  is  replete  with  studies  which 
 quantitatively  investigate  different  predetermined  criteria  influencing  how  raters  rate,  very
few studies have specifically investigated the raters‟ cognitions in terms of the factors they
attend to and are aware of in rating a group oral task. A strong need is felt for in depth data-driven studies to tap on the true features that raters attend to in group oral assessment. Trying
to  fill  this  void  in  the  literature,  this  study  attempts  to  underpin  factors  that  influence  and
account for raters‟ performance in group discussion tasks. That is, in assigning scores what
factors  they  attend  to;  what  features  of  the  speech  sample  influence  or  impress  them.  An
ignorance  of  such  factors  may  lead  to  a  limited  and  limiting  description  of  group  oral  task
specificities which may present a construct underrepresentation threat. This inadequacy may
be reflected in a reductionist rating scales or inefficient rater training programs. As such, the
main objective of this study is to identify the factors that may have been under represented in
the  literature  as  actually  influencing  the  raters  that  may  result  in  inflation  or  deflation  of
scores in a group discussion task. A qualitative approach to data collection and analysis may
serve this purpose. 
So many such factors have been mentioned in literature as accounting for the scores the
raters  assign  to  oral  tasks.  Linguistic  features  have  been  amongst  the  very  first  factors
attended to by researchers as factors influencing the raters in assigning scores in different oral
tasks.  Hence,  a  complementary  objective  of  this  study  is  to  see  to  what  extent  actually  the
linguistic features of the speech samples influence the raters‟ perception of proficiency of a
learner  and  assigning  a  score  accordingly.  By  linguistic  features  of  the  speech  samples  we
mean  fluency,  accuracy,  complexity,  and  amount  of  talks  which  are  among  the  factors  that
are  commonly  mentioned  in  the  literature  as  oral  proficiency  measures.  This  quantitative
phase,  intends  to  see  to  what  proportions,  a  set  of  predetermined  linguistic  features  can
account for the scores assigned. There is a possibility that other features other than linguistic
ones  may  influence  the  raters.  A  correlation  between  the  linguistic  features  and  the  scores
assigned  can  fulfil  this  objective.  Using  a  mixed  methods  design  can  present  a  more
comprehensive picture of oral group ratings.
In line with general objectives, the following research questions specifically guide this
1-  What  is  the  relationship  between  the  scores  assigned  by  the  experienced  raters  and
the linguistic features (complexity, accuracy, fluency, and amount of talk) of the speech
samples produced by language learners in group oral discussion tasks? 
2- What factors do the untrained raters attend to in rating speech samples?  
Design of the study
The concurrent triangulation mixed methods design is used to serve the purpose of this study
(Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). Both qualitative and quantitative  data were simultaneously
collected to enable the researcher detect the factors influencing the untrained raters in group
oral  assessment.  This  approach  has  the  advantage  of  providing  „well-validated  and
substantiated findings‟ (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003, p.229). 
This study had two different groups of participants. The first group of the participants of this
study were 16 Iranian English language learners. They were TEFL students ranging from 19
to 24. Language learners of both genders were selected based on their voluntary participation. 
The second group of the participants were 32 untrained Iranian raters who were largely
English language teachers of language institutes. Generally, in Iran, language teachers do not
receive  any  formal  training  on  rating.  Hence,  if  the  need  for  rating  arises,  the  language
teachers  resort  to  their  own  experience,  background  knowledge  or  rational  judgement.  The
participants were of both genders and varying teaching experience in rating and teaching. In
line  with  the  varying  years  of  teaching  experience,  the  raters  also  varied  in  terms  of  age,
ranging  from  21  to  47.  Attempt  was  made  to  include  teachers  of  similar  education  level,
namely  bachelors,  in  order  to  avoid  the  contaminating  effect  of  education  level.  Since  the
raters had to take time listen and rate the speech samples, they were selected based on their
voluntary participations and were also paid for the ratings they did.
Rating sheet
Listening to the audio files of the group discussion speech samples, the raters assigned each
learner  a  score.  They  were  also  required  to  provide  some  comments  on  the  rating  sheet,
pointing to the factors that they attended to while assigning the scores.
The  researchers  also  had  a  semi-structured  interview  with  each  rater,  separately,  right
after the rating session had ended. 
Group oral discussion task
The task implemented in this study was group discussion. The language learners were
randomly  assigned  to  the  groups  of  four.  Separately,  in  each  group,  the  participants  were
supposed to have a discussion over the topic „early marriage vs. late marriage‟. This topic 
 was considered to be general, familiar, and at the same time interesting enough to the Iranian
students and their culture to be discussion rising. No intrusion in the discussion process was
made  by  the  researchers  and  the  participants  themselves  directed  the  discussions.  The
discussion  took  about  15  minutes.  The  speech  samples  produced  were  audio-recorded  for
further analysis.
Data collection and procedure:
Having  collected  the  speech  samples  of  the  learners  in  the  form  of  group  discussions,  the
researchers  asked  the  untrained  Iranian  EFL  raters  to  rate  them.  No  training,  rating  scale  or
analytical framework was presented to the raters. Listening to the audio files, the raters were
supposed to assign each language learner a score of one to six; reflecting basic, elementary,
intermediate,  upper  intermediate,  advanced,  and  mastery  levels  delineated  in  the  Common
European  Framework  for  Reference  (CEFR).  They  were  also  required  to  write  some
comments delineating why they assigned such scores, and  what factors they attended to. To
avoid order effect of rating, the group discussion speech samples were randomly presented to
the raters. After the rating sessions ended, the researchers interviewed the raters individually
and their responses were audio recorded. Through repeated careful listening, the researchers
transcribed  the  comments  and  the  interviews.  All  utterances  were  written  down  including
both verbal and non-verbal ones like pauses, laughter, pause fillers, etc. Overlaps, repetitions,
and false starts were also included. 
Data Analysis:
Content  Analysis  (CA)  was  used  as  the  main  analysis  approach  to  extract  and  codify  both
relevant  common  and  idiosyncratic  ideas  in  the  comments  and  interviews,  reflecting  the
features that the raters attend to in rating which may account for the scores they assigned. 
The  linguistic  feature  measures  of  the  group  discussions  were  also  estimated  and  for
each learner an index of fluency, accuracy, complexity and amount of talk were identified to
be  correlated  with  the  scores  the  learners  received.  Spearman  rank  order  correlation
coefficient  was  administered  to  estimate  the  correlation  between  the  scores  assigned  by  the
raters and the linguistic features.
Analysis of linguistic features: Analysis of linguistic fluency was measured by the rate
of speech and quantity of unfilled pauses, which have been found to be significant markers of 
fluency  (Lennon,  1990;  Riggenbach,  1991).  For the “speech rate” index, all understandable
English syllables, including repeated words and  false starts were counted,  while non-lexical
fillers, such as “um” and “er”, were excluded. This figure was divided by the turn‟s time and
multiplied by 60 to arrive at the rate per minute (Towell et al., 1996). Unfilled pauses of one
second  or  more  within  a  long  turn  were  timed,  and  this  figure  was  divided  by  turn  time  to
give a “pause proportion” index, which was a measure of breakdown in fluency (Tavakoli &
Foster,  2008).  Amount  of  talk  was  also  taken  as  another  linguistic  feature  of  the  speech
sample.  It  was  defined  as  the  total  number  of  words  which  could  be  "a  reasonable
approximation of the amount of floor time occupied by the candidate" (Davis, 2009, p.377).
Syntactic complexity was also measured by the ratio of clauses to  AS-units and the average
length  of  utterance,  which  was  calculated  as  the  number  of  words  per  AS-unit  (Foster  &
Tavakoli,  2009).  An  AS-unit  is  a  single  speaker's  utterance  consisting  of  an  independent
clause,  or  sub-clausal  unit,  together  with  any  subordination  clause(s)  associated  with  either.
(Foster, et al. 2000). Finally, the measurement of accuracy was given by the ratio of error free
clauses  to  total  clauses.  Errors  of  syntax,  morphology  and  lexical  choice  will  be  counted
(Nitta & Nakatsuara, 2014).
To  check  inter-  coder  reliability,  one  of  the  group  discussions  was  randomly  selected
and  coded  by  a  second  rater.  Inter-coder  reliability  was  high  for  all  four  linguistic  features
(accuracy: 81, complexity 86, fluency: 78 and amount of talk: 100 for < .01).
Quantitative phase:  The relationship between scores and linguistic features
To answer this question a correlation was carried out between the mean of scores assigned by
three  of  the  most  experienced  raters  and  the  linguistic  features  of  the  group  discussions
produced by language learners. Due to the low sample size, Spearman Rank order correlation
was utilized.
As  evident  in  table  1,  rate  of  speech,  as  an  index  of  fluency,  showed  a  correlation
estimate of 0.878 with the scores. The amount of talk had a correlation estimate of 0.892 with
the scores. Both were statistically significant with a CI of 99% (p<0.001).

Hence, the raters had not attended to more delicate and complex features of the group
discussion  task  like  accuracy,  complexity,  and  quantity  of  unfilled  pauses.  This  can  be
justified  by  Kahneman's  (1973)  concept  of divided  attention,  which  suggested  that  many
factors determine how much attentional capacity be allocated to each task. 
Since  there  were  more  than  one  individual  in  group  discussions,  the  rater  were  less
concerned  with  delicate  linguistic  features  like  complexity  and  accuracy,  dividing  their
attention to four learners‟ oral performance at the same time. Hence, they attended to a fewer
number of criteria. They also attended to more easy to perceive factors like rate of speech and
amount  of  talk.  This  may  suggest  that  the  raters  were  not  just  concerned  and  influenced  by
the linguistic features. There may have been other factors that they attended to in a group oral
task and which may account for the scores they assigned. The qualitative phase, below, sheds
some light on such factors.
Qualitative phase: Factors considered in rating by the Iranian untrained raters
Analysing the data, several emerging patterns reflecting the factors that the raters attended to
in assigning scores emerged as described below:
Linguistic features: A qualitative analysis of the data  –as well- revealed  an awareness
on the part of the raters about the linguistic features of the group discussion speech samples
while assigning scores. Some of the linguistic features were easier for them to attend to and
consider in rating and some other less accessible to them.
Most  of  the  comments  concerning  accuracy  were  related  to  pronunciation  errors.
Intonation,  stress  and  pronunciation  of  individual  sounds  were  factors  that  nearly  all  raters
referred to. 
Repeatedly pronounce /d/ for /ð/ or /s/ for /ɵ/
Pronunciation errors like ‘advantageous’ instead of ‘advantages’ that make problem for
 Farsi intonation
Grammatical  and  lexical  errors  did  receive  some  attention.  However,  compared  to
pronunciation errors, they received relatively a smaller number of comments.
Good choice of words but grammar problems 
Persian  expressions  and  idioms  translated  into  English like ‘man of living’ or ‘see the
empty side of the glass’
Wrong words use: like ‘unsatisfied’ or grammatical structures like: ‘getting marriage’ or
‘the best important’
For fluency, the rate of speech was more eye-catching and easier, as a result, receiving
more attention, as was corroborated by the quantitative phase. The quantity of unfilled pauses
was also pointed in many cases by the raters; however, mostly in extreme case. That is, where
a language learner made a lot of pauses that made his or her flow of speech unnatural. 
Some  other  features  were  not  readily  accessible  to  them,  hence  they  might  not  have
attended  to  enough.  Complexity  was  one  such  case.  Not  all  raters  were  caring  about
complexity  as  long  as  the  sentences  were  accurate  and  fluently  uttered.  In  rare  cases  where
they did attend to complexity, it was reflected in a comment like:
She used beautiful sentences not just simple sentences
Interactional features: Besides the linguistic features referred to above, the raters were
influenced  by  the  interaction  features.  The  most  repeatedly  mentioned  ones  are  presented
The degree of participation: A repeatedly mentioned factor which raters referred to as
influencing  them  in  assigning  high  or  low  scores  was  participation;  the  extent  that  the
participants  in  the  group  discussion  participated  in  the  discussions.  This  can  be  taken  as  a
qualitative  counterpart  of  amount  of  talk  which  were  shown  to  be  significantly  correlated
with  the  scores  assigned  by  the  raters  in  the  quantitative  phase  mentioned  above.
Participation  can  have  different  representations:  the  ability  to  initiate  a  turn,  take  a  turn  or
hold the floor, etc. Much participation will lead to producing a longer and larger number of
turns  which  will  help  a  participant  presents  himself  as  proficient,  hence,  receiving  a  higher
score by the raters. The cooperation in the discussion was usually referred to as turn–taking
by  the  raters'  familiarity  with  the  technical  term  and  cooperation  or  participation  by  those
who might not be familiar with the technical term. The following  excerpts were taken from
the comments provided by the raters on assigning each score and some were extracted from 
the  interviews  they  had  with  the  researchers  depicting  how  the  raters  were  affected  by  the
participation quantity in the group discussions:
Self-confident enough to participate in the conversation
Takes a short part in discussion doesn’t show herself
She spoke very little so I reduce some points
Because she holds the floor for a long time, I assign her a high mark
Spoke more than others
He didn’t speak a lot maybe he felt shy. Maybe because he was the only man in the group.
But, I have to reduce some scores.
Sensitivity to the speakers’ role in the group discussion: The second recurrent theme in
the raters‟ interviews and the comments on scores accounting for the scores  they  assigned
was the fact that they did attend to the way interlocutors act in relation to each other. To put it
technically, they were sensitive to the roles the participants took:
Active vs. passive role: Whether a participant had an active role in the group task which
can be represented as listening attentively to other interlocutors, developing and commenting
on other‟s generated turns, asking questions, confirmation check, ability to maintain the floor,
challenging  or  convincing  others  etc.  were  deemed  as  positive  features  by  the  raters  and
inflating  the  scores  they  assigned.  On  the  contrary,  not  following  the  flow  of  conversation,
just  mentioning  some  points,  getting  interrupted  easily,  not  raising  a  question  or  defending
one‟s own opinion etc. were taken as factors that depicted a participant as passive; leading to
a reduction in the scores they received. 
A  point  needs  to  be  clarified  here.  Although  not  unrelated,  taking  a  passive  or  active
role  should  not  just  be  taken  equal  to  participating  in  the  conversation  or  not.  The
participation  is  a  much  quantitatively  measurable  factor.  However,  the  extent  to  which  the
participant is passively or actively engaged in the conversation is qualitatively different from
just  participating.  An  interlocutor  can  produce  much  language  and  take  the  floor  just  to  –
sometimes  unenthusiastically-  mention  his/  her  own  ideas  and  not  attending  to  what  was
mentioned  or  was  relevant  to  the  flow  of  conversation.  The  key  is  to  be  actively  and
attentively engaged in the flow of the conversation.
Below is an excerpt from one of group discussion samples:
Maryam:  Another  thing  I  want  to  mention  it  that  […]  the  boys  and  girls  in  our  ages
emm  for  example  we  are  in  19,  20,21  we  are  so  er  sensitive  and  we  decide  on […]  on  our
base and sometimes for example we see a boy fall in love with a girl or vice versa […] about 
two  or  three  years  after  that  they  divorce  because  they  decide  on  their  feeling.  Sara:  yes  I
agree with you. Niloofar: I don’t agree with early marriage because maybe emm it has some
maybe  it  has  some  disadvantages  maybe  […]  the  individuals  want  their  educational
education […] mmm they spend military service and they something like this. ([…]= pause)
In this excerpt, Nilooafar‟s contribution was  not  in  line  with  what  was  previously
mentioned  by  other  interlocutors.  As  if  she  did  not  see  the  task  as  a  group  discussion  but  a
series of monologues, each participant forced to say something to avoid silence. She just said
something for the sake of receiving a score and not actually responding to her interlocutors.
Such examples received comment like:
She was not answering the previous ones’ topic or continue what he was saying
Not see or think themselves as group just talk about her own idea
He seems uninterested in the conversation 
He just wanted to pass his turn
Others easily interrupt him
Giving short answers
Does not try to convince others 
Waiting to be asked questions
Not initiating any turn 
No coherent speech just for the sake of saying something not responding to what
has been said
Talking with no enthusiasm
On  the  other  hand,  taking  an  active  role  was  also  pinpointed  by  the  raters,  as
represented in comments like:
Tries to discuss in spite of his bad English
Commenting on interlocutors’ speech
Listening carefully, asking questions, giving feedback, talking to everybody
Asking others to give him feedback
Corroborating  the  influence  of  an  active  role  on  the  raters‟  assessment  of  the  group
task,  May  (2011)  identified  features  such  as  understanding  interlocutor‟s  message,
responding to partner, working cooperatively, and contributing to an authentic interaction as
factors that raters perceived as interlocutors‟ mutual achievement.
Supportive  Vs.  dominant  role:  The  raters  were  also  sensitive  to  the  managing  role
meaning  some  participants  took,  trying  to  lead  the  discussion  and  help  the  conversation 
 going. In case of any troubles, they tried to handle them.  The following comments reflected
this awareness:
Brings a topic for others to follow
Good for group speaking/chat 
Asking questions to keep the conversation going
Encouraging her partners speak
Handles the conversation
This  managing  role  can  be  labelled  as  supportive  and  contrasted  with  the  competitive
role with comments like:
She stops her friends abruptly
She was in hurry to take turns
He raised a question and he himself answered it immediately to hold the floor.
The objections she made were very direct
Defends bravely takes it like a battle of ideas
This managing role was also identified by May (2006) as a feature that raters perceived
as important in rating pair discussion tasks. Using retrospective verbal reports to analyse the
factors that raters of paired discussion tasks attended to, May (2006) concluded that the raters
did take into account the ability to manage the discussion and work together cooperatively in
assessing effectiveness which was the most interactional of the criteria.
Galaczi‟s  (2014)  also  identified  three  recurring  patterns  underlying  interactive
communication,  namely  topic  development,  listener  support,  and  turn-taking  management.
These  themes  were  relatively  in  line  with  the  interactive  features  that  Ducasse  and  Brown
(2009) pointed to in their raters‟ orientation to the learners‟ construction. These patterns
included interactive listening and interactional management which were particularly salient to
raters.  These  two  studies  confirm  the  orientation  of  the  raters  to  other  factors  other  than
merely  linguistic  ones.  The  managing  or  supportive  role  sometime  was  taken  negatively  by
some  raters  labelling  it  as  authoritative  or  dominant.  There  is  a  delicate  differentiating  line
between  being  dominant  or  just  managing  the  conversation.  Hence,  raters  might  have
different perceptions of this and hence assign different scores accordingly. 
For  the  first  theme  -participation-  the  raters  who  did  pinpoint  this  factor  were  quite
uniform  in  terms  of  the  scores  they  assigned.  That  is,  more  participation  received  a  higher
score and less participation was assigned a lower scores. However, for the other themes – role
of  the  participants-  different  interpretations  were  attributed  to  the  roles.  That  is,  one  rater 
might  consider  a  participant  as  dominant  and  reducing  some  score  and  another  rater  might
consider the same participant as just managing, thus, assigning a high score. 
In the excerpt below, as well, as if Parisa was Azar‟s teacher, trying to correct her and
asking question to make her talk. This was taken by some raters as the supportive role Parisa
took  in  relation  to  Azar  and  assigning  a  high  score  to  Parisa.  Still,  some  other  raters
considered this as a negative point since they expected a balanced relation in terms of a group
Azar: yes I experienced it and because in early marriage we are more […] energyful than mmm than 
Parisa: the other who married late 
Azar: the other who married late. And we are very.. I am more active and and we can express our
feeling to each other 
Parisa: better
Azar: better
Parisa:  and  do  you  don’t you have any problem like house, car or  […]   supplement  for  the  life?
Azar: its depends on the man. I think the man should be educated and should be educated and can
support the […] himself and be on her foot 
Parisa: be on his foot, become depen independent
However,  in  the  excerpt  below,  the  fact  that  Farhad  was  not  caring  about  the
proficiency level of the other interlocutors in terms of repeatedly using complex vocabulary
that  was  beyond  the  level  of  his  interlocutors  was  considered  as  not  being  supportive  and
hence did not receive a high score.
Farhad:  temporary  wedlock  is  something  for  alleviating  of,  alleviation  of  emotions  and  feelings,  I
think  this  the  best solution. This is the most orthodox solution to us. What’s your opinion?  Sima:
would you clarify it? I don’t understand
And the following comments were made on these piece of data by the raters:
He wanted to show off, he just tried to use difficult words and not caring that his
partner did not understand.
He just tried to use strange words.
The overall group interaction pattern:  Beside the sensitivity to the role taken by  each
participant  individually,  some  of  the  raters  also  made  some  references  to  the  overall
interactional  pattern  as  a  group.  Whether  a  group  discussion  was  symmetric  or  asymmetric,
which  was  much  dependent  on  the  quantity  of  participation  and  the  roles  that  participants
took. For instance, commenting on a group discussion in which one of the participant uttered
less than three complete sentence or in case another participant talked too much giving others 

no chance to talk, or when two of the participants address each other and not caring about the
rest,  some  raters  referred  to  the  asymmetry  in  terms  of  quantity  of  talk,  represented  in
comments like:
This discussion was three sided.
It was like a dialogue than a group discussion
Hence,  the  raters  did  attend  to  the  role,  interactional  pattern,  etc.  However,  taking  a
specific role or having a special interaction style led to either positive or negative scores. 
The  first  recurrent  theme  was  the  extent  to  which  the  interlocutors  participate  in  the
group discussion in terms of turn taking. All other linguistic features of accuracy, complexity,
etc. being equal, the extent to which a participant could initiate a turn or could take a turn was
deemed as a strong point and receiving high scores by the raters. This was corroborated with
the quantitative result which showed a statistically significant correlation between amount of
talk  and  the  scores  the  raters  assigned.  The  other  two  main  recurrent  themes  were  the  roles
that interlocutors took and the overall interactional design of the group. Contrary to the first
theme  which  directly  influenced  the  scores  the  raters  assigned,  these  two  factors  might  or
might not lead to a uniform and predictable influence on the scores. Different raters attributed
different interpretation or judgement to an interaction pattern or role. 
The  study  attempted  to  identify  the  factors  that  untrained  raters  attended  to  in  group  oral
assessment .The findings of the study can be summarized as follows: 
First: Quantitative phase: Only two of the linguistic features, namely the rate of speech
as  an  index  of  fluency  and  amount  of  talk,  did  statistically  correlate  with  the  scores.
Regarding  the  amount  of  talk,  this  finding  is  in  line  with  Galaczi  (2008).  Comparing  peer-peer  interaction  patterns  with  the  scores  the  learners  received,  she  found  that,  although  not
among the very first features to correlate with the score assigned, amount of talk was one of
the  topic  development  discourse  features  correlating  more  with  the  scores  assigned  by  the
raters compared to lexical and syntactic cohesive links as features of cohesion between turns.
In  the  case  of  rate  of  speech  as  an  indicator  of  proficiency  as  perceived  by  the  raters,  this
finding  was  also  corroborated  in  studies  done  by  De  Jong,  Steinel,  Florijn,  Schoonen  and
Hulstijn  (2012)  arguing  that  articulation  rate  is  one  of  the  best  measures  of  speed  fluency.
Préfontaine, Kormos and Johnson (2016), as well, found that articulation rate along with the 
mean  length  of  runs  which  is  similar  to  amount  of  talk  proved  to  be  the  most  influential
factors in raters‟ judgments.
Second: Qualitative phase: As revealed by CA, the raters did attend to some –not all- of
the linguistic features, but selectively. However, it turned out that in rating group discussions,
the raters attended to other -mostly interactional- features specific to group discussion task as
well.  Such  interactional  factors  included:  the  degree  of  participation,  the  role  of  the
participants  as  perceived  by  the  raters  and  the  overall  interaction  patterns  of  the  discussion.
This  finding  supports  the  studies  that  have  found  that  in  rating  paired  or  group  tasks,  the
raters  attend  to  mostly  interactional  features  like  „working  together  cooperatively‟,  

„turn-taking  management‟ or „interactional management‟ and „interactive  listening‟  (May,  2006;
Galaczi, 2014; Ducasse & Brown, 2009). 
Linguistic  features  are  usually  deemed  as  factors  that  may  correlate  with  the  scores
assigned by the rater regardless of the number of interlocutors in the task applied. However,
,as evident in the quantitative phase, the case of group discussions are not limited to linguistic
features and may need a much broader scope of investigation. 
This pieces of research just scratches the surface of rating  group discussion as an oral
assessment  task.  However,  grounded  in  the  actual  data,  the  findings  can  help  in  group  oral
assessment.  Two  main  implications  of  this  study  are  rating  scale  development  and  rater
training. As a new approach to oral assessment, group discussion tasks may beg for their own
specific rating scale reflecting the idiosyncratic features of such tasks which may be missing
in other ordinary oral assessment tasks. The fact that the raters do attend to a broader set of
factors in assigning scores in group discussion tasks justifies avoiding a reductionist approach
which only a predetermined set of criteria are set in a rating scale.
The  raters  participating  in  this  study  were  untrained.  However,  the  fact  that  they  did
demonstrate an awareness and sensitivity to features specific to a group task, opens a window
of  opportunity  to  formally  train  them  in  how  to  rate  the  features  related  to  group  oral  tasks
both systematically and reliably.
A  larger  number  of  raters  residing  in  different  educational  contexts  would  have
provided a wider range of data. Education level, proficiency, and other variables of the raters
can also shed some light on the effects of rater variables on the attention to factors specific to
group  discussion  tasks.  For  the  sake  of  convenience,  this  study  recorded  audio  file  of  the
learners engaged in group discussions and played back to the raters to rate them. Recording 
video  files  would  have  enabled  the  raters  to  attend  to  gestures  and  body  language  of  the
learners too.

Bonk, W.J., & Ockey, G. J. (2003). A many-faceted Rasch analysis of the second language group oral discussion task. Language Testing. 20(1), 89-110.
Creswell, J., & Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Davis, L. (2009). The influence of interlocutor proficiency in a paired oral assessment. Language Testing, 26(3), 367-396.
De Jong, N. H., Steinel, M. P., Florijn, A. F., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J. H. (2012). Linguisti skills and speaking fluency in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 1–24.
Ducasse, A, M., & Brown, A. (2009). Assessing paired orals: Raters’ orientation to interaction. In L. Taylor & G. Wigglesworth (Eds), Pair work in learning and assessment contexts. Special Issue on Paired Interaction. Language Testing, 26 (3) 423-443.
Foster, P., A. Tonkyn, and G. Wigglesworth. (2000). A unit for all reasons: The analysis of spoken interaction. Applied Linguistics, 21(3), 354–75.
Foster, P., & Tavakoli, P. (2009). Native speakers and task performance: Comparing effects on complexity, fluency, and lexical diversity. Language Learning, 59(4), 866–896.
Fulcher, G. (1996). Testing tasks: Issues in task design and the group oral. Language Testing, 13, 23–51.
Galaczi, E. (2008). Peer–peer interaction in a speaking test: The case of the First Certificate in English examination. Language Assessment Quarterly, 2, 89–119. 
Galaczi, E. (2014). Interactional competence across proficiency levels: How do learners manage interaction in paired speaking tests? Applied Linguistics, 35(5), 553-574.
Ginther, A., Dimova, S., & Yang, R. (2010). Conceptual and empirical relationships between temporal measures of fluency and oral English proficiency with implications for automated scoring. Language Testing, 27(3), 379-399.
He, L., & Dai, Y. (2006). A corpus-based investigation into the validity of the CET-SET group discussion. Language Testing, 23, 370–402.
Hilsdon, J. (1995). The group oral exam: Advantages and limitations. In Alderson, J. & North, B., editors, Language testing in the 1990s: The communicative legacy (pp. 189–197). Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall International.
Iwashita, N. (2008). Lexical profiles in EAP speaking task performanceIndonesian Journal of English Language Teaching, 4 (2), 111-121.
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kramsch, C. (1986). From language proficiency to interactional competence. The Modern Language Journal, 70(4), 366-372.
Lazaraton, A., & Davis, L. (2008). A Microanalytic perspective on discourse, proficiency, and identity in paired oral assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 5(4), 313- 335.
Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40(3), 387-417.
Luk, J. (2010). Talking to score: Impression management in L2 oral assessment and the co-construction of a test discourse genre. Language Assessment Quarterly, 7(1), 25-53.
May, L. A. (2006). An examination of rater orientations on a paired candidate discussion task through stimulated verbal recall. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing, 11(1), 29–51.
May, L. (2011). Interactional competence in a paired speaking test: Features salient to raters.  Language Assessment Quarterly, 8(2), 127-145.
Nitta, R., & Nakatsuara, F. (2014). A multifaceted approach to investigating pre-task planning effect on paired oral test performance. Language Testing, 31(2), 147-175.
Ockey, G. J. (2001). Is the oral interview superior to the group oral? Working Papers on Language Acquisition and Education, International University of Japan, 11, 22–41.
Préfontaine,Y., Kormos, J., & Johnson, D.E. (2016). How do utterance measures predict raters’ perceptions of fluency in French as a second language? Language Testing, 33(1) 53–73.
Riggenbach, H. (1991). Toward an understanding of fluency: A microanalysis of non-native speaker conversations. Discourse Processes, 14(4), 423–441.
Shohamy, E., Reves, T., & Bejerano, Y. (1986). Introducing a new comprehensive test of oral proficiency, English Language Teaching Journal, 40(3), 212-220.
Sun, H. (2014). Paired and group oral assessment. Columbia University Academia Commons. Retrieved from: www.tc.columbia.edu/tesolalwebjournal
Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioural research. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications.
Tavakoli, P., & Foster, P. (2008). Task design and second language performance: The effect of narrative type on learner output. Language Learning, 58 (2), 439–473.
Towell, R., Hawkins, R., & Bazergui, N. (1996). The development of fluency in advanced learners of French. Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 84–119.
Van Lier, L. (1989) Reeling, writhing, drawling, stretching, and fainting in coils: oral proficiency interviews as conversation. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 489–508.
Van Moere, A. (2006). Validity evidence in a university group oral test. Language Testing, 23(4), 411–440. Doi: 10.1191/0265532206lt336oa
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological process.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.